A rate of change of relatively disparity is a sufficient binocular stimulus for the perception of motion in depth. For motion within the meridian that contains the eyes, disparity change associated with approaching motion is processed through four channels, each tuned to a different direction of motion in depth. Directional discrimination is most acute but detection sensitivity falls to a minimum for a trajectory passing approximately midway between the eyes. This can be explained if discrimination depends on the relatively of the four channels. Two binocular retinal-image correlates of the direction of the motion of an object in depth are the ratio between the velocities of the retinal images of the object in the left and right eyes [(d phi/dt)R/(d phi/dt)L], and the ratio between the translational velocity of the binocularly fused images and the rates of change of disparity [(d phi/dt)/(d gamma/dt)]. Directional discrimination is possible by using the second cue alone. An isotropic rate of expansion of the retinal image is a sufficient monocular stimulus for the perception of motion in depth. There is no evidence that expansion is processed through channels tuned to the direction of motion in depth. Two monocular correlates of the direction of the motion of an object in depth are the ratio between the translational velocity and the rate of expansion of the retinal image of the object [(d phi/dt)/(d theta/dt)], and the ratio between the velocities of opposite edges of the retinal image [(d alpha 1/dt)/(d alpha 2/dt)]. Subjects are able monocularly to discriminate the direction of motion in depth with high acuity (better than 0.1 deg threshold) in the vertical, horizontal, or oblique meridians, even when the direction and the speed of translational motion are removed as cues. Visual discrimination of time to contact with an approaching object can be disconfounded from discrimination of its rate of expansion and vice versa with a threshold separation ratio of as much as 100:1.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
- Sensory Systems
- Artificial Intelligence