Understanding multifunctional bay of fundy dykelands and tidal wetlands using ecosystem services-a baseline

Kate Sherren, Kirsten Ellis, Julia A. Guimond, Barret Kurylyk, Nicole LeRoux, Jeremy Lundholm, Mark L. Mallory, Danika Van Proosdij, Allison K. Walker, Tony M. Bowron, John Brazner, Lisa Kellman, B. L. Turner, Emily Wells

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


We review what is known about ecosystem service (ES) delivery from agricultural dykelands and tidal wetlands around the dynamic Bay of Fundy in the face of climate change and sea-level rise, at the outset of the national NSERC ResNet project. Agricultural dykelands are areas of drained tidal wetland that have been converted to agricultural lands and protected using dykes and aboiteaux (one-way drains or sluices), first introduced by early French settlers (Acadians). Today, Nova Scotia's 242 km system of dykes protect 17,364 ha of increasingly diverse land uses-including residential, industrial, and commercial uses as well as significant tourism, recreational, and cultural amenities-and is undergoing system modernization and adaptation. Different ES are provided by drained and undrained landscapes such as agriculture from dykelands and regulating services from wetlands, but more complex dynamics exist when beneficiaries are differentiated. This review reveals many knowledge gaps about ES delivery and dynamics, including around net greenhouse gas implications, storm protection, water quality, fish stocks, pollination processes, sense of place, and aesthetics, some of which may reveal shared ES or synergies instead of trade-offs. We emphasize the need to be open to adapting ES concepts and categorizations to fully understand Indigenous implications of these land use decisions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1446-1473
Number of pages28
StatePublished - Jan 2021


  • Dike realignment
  • Ecosystem service
  • Managed realignment
  • Salt marsh
  • Tidal wetland restoration
  • Trade-offs

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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