Enhanced coagulation was evaluated for removal efficacy of coxsackievirus and echovirus (Contaminant Candidate List [CCL] enteroviruses), poliovirus, four potential surrogate bacteriophages, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Viruses and DOC were effectively removed using enhanced coagulation, with removals generally improving as dose increased and pH decreased. Optimal enhanced coagulation conditions of 40 mg/L FeCl3 and pH between 5 and 6.5 resulted in a maximum removal of 3.0 logs of coxsackievirus B6, 1.75 logs of echovirus 12, 2.5 logs of poliovirus 1, 1.8 logs of fr, 1.3 logs of phi-X174, 0.36 logs of MS2, 0.29 logs of PRD1, and 41% DOC. Bacteriophages fr and phi-X174 appear to be the most representative surrogates for the physical removal of coxsackievirus, while MS2 and PRD1 are more conservative. For echovirus, MS2 and PRD1 appear to be the most appropriate surrogates. The relative removal profiles of the enteroviruses (greatest removal of coxsackievirus followed by poliovirus and then echovirus) suggest that studies of the physical removal of poliovirus may be extended to the CCL enteroviruses. These results contribute to evaluations of the CCL and regulatory status of coxsackievirus and echovirus and aid in building a database of the treatment efficiencies of enteroviruses and their surrogates.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Chemistry