Tracing the Evolutionary History of the CAP Superfamily of Proteins Using Amino Acid Sequence Homology and Conservation of Splice Sites

Anup Abraham, Douglas E. Chandler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations

Abstract

Proteins of the CAP superfamily play numerous roles in reproduction, innate immune responses, cancer biology, and venom toxicology. Here we document the breadth of the CAP (Cysteine-RIch Secretory Protein (CRISP), Antigen 5, and Pathogenesis-Related) protein superfamily and trace the major events in its evolution using amino acid sequence homology and the positions of exon/intron borders within their genes. Seldom acknowledged in the literature, we find that many of the CAP subfamilies present in mammals, where they were originally characterized, have distinct homologues in the invertebrate phyla. Early eukaryotic CAP genes contained only one exon inherited from prokaryotic predecessors and as evolution progressed an increasing number of introns were inserted, reaching 2–5 in the invertebrate world and 5–15 in the vertebrate world. Focusing on the CRISP subfamily, we propose that these proteins evolved in three major steps: (1) origination of the CAP/PR/SCP domain in bacteria, (2) addition of a small Hinge domain to produce the two-domain SCP-like proteins found in roundworms and anthropoids, and (3) addition of an Ion Channel Regulatory domain, borrowed from invertebrate peptide toxins, to produce full length, three-domain CRISP proteins, first seen in insects and later to diversify into multiple subtypes in the vertebrate world.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)137-157
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Molecular Evolution
Volume85
Issue number3-4
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2017

Keywords

  • CRISP protein family
  • Cysteine-rich protein superfamily
  • Phylogenetic analysis
  • Splice sites

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics

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