The State and Future of Mars Polar Science and Exploration

Stephen M. Clifford, David Crisp, David A. Fisher, Ken E. Herkenhoff, Suzanne E. Smrekar, Peter C. Thomas, David D. Wynn-Williams, Richard W. Zurek, Jeffrey R. Barnes, Bruce G. Bills, Erik W. Blake, Wendy M. Calvin, Jonathan M. Cameron, Michael H. Carr, Philip Christensen, Benton C. Clark, Gary D. Clow, James A. Cutts, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, William B. DurhamFraser P. Fanale, Jack Farmer, Francois Forget, Kumiko Gotto-Azuma, Rejean Grard, Robert M. Haberle, William Harrison, Ralph Harvey, Alan D. Howard, Andy P. Ingersoll, Philip B. James, Jeffrey S. Kargel, Hugh H. Kieffer, Janus Larsen, Kenneth Lepper, Michael C. Malin, Daniel J. McCleese, Bruce Murray, John F. Nye, David A. Paige, Stephen R. Platt, Jeff J. Plaut, Niels Reeh, James W. Rice, David E. Smith, Carol R. Stoker, Kenneth L. Tanaka, Ellen Mosley-Thompson, Thorsteinn Thorsteinsson, Stephen E. Wood, Aaron Zent, Maria T. Zuber, H. Jay Zwally

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

91 Scopus citations


As the planet's principal cold traps, the martian polar regions have accumulated extensive mantles of ice and dust that cover individual areas of ∼106 km2 and total as much as 3-4 km thick. From the scarcity of superposed craters on their surface, these layered deposits are thought to be comparatively young - preserving a record of the seasonal and climatic cycling of atmospheric CO2, H2O, and dust over the past ∼105-108 years. For this reason, the martian polar deposits may serve as a Rosetta Stone for understanding the geologic and climatic history of the planet - documenting variations in insolation (due to quasiperiodic oscillations in the planet's obliquity and orbital elements), volatile mass balance, atmospheric composition, dust storm activity, volcanic eruptions, large impacts, catastrophic floods, solar luminosity, supernovae, and perhaps even a record of microbial life. Beyond their scientific value, the polar regions may soon prove important for another reason - providing a valuable and accessible reservoir of water to support the long-term human exploration of Mars. In this paper we assess the current state of Mars polar research, identify the key questions that motivate the exploration of the polar regions, discuss the extent to which current missions will address these questions, and speculate about what additional capabilities and investigations may be required to address the issues that remain outstanding.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)210-242
Number of pages33
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2000


  • Exobiology
  • Ices
  • Mars, atmosphere
  • Mars, climate
  • Mars, surface

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


Dive into the research topics of 'The State and Future of Mars Polar Science and Exploration'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this