The effect of tier 2 intervention for phonemic awareness in a response-to-intervention model in low-income preschool classrooms

Anthony D. Koutsoftas, Mary Towle Harmon, Shelley Gray

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    49 Scopus citations

    Abstract

    Purpose: This study assessed the effectiveness of a Tier 2 intervention that was designed to increase the phonemic awareness skills of low-income preschoolers who were enrolled in Early Reading First classrooms. Method: Thirty-four preschoolers participated in a multiple baseline across participants treatment design. Tier 2 intervention for beginning sound awareness was provided twice weekly in small groups over 6 weeks by trained teachers and speech- language pathologists (SLPs). Results: The intervention was successful for 71% of the children, as indicated by medium to large effect sizes. Comparisons between children who did and did not qualify for intervention suggest that Tier 2 intervention helped narrow the gap in beginning sound awareness that had begun to emerge before treatment. Although children receiving special education and those learning English as a second language were enrolled in the classrooms, they were not over represented in the group qualifying for Tier 2intervention, and most who did qualify demonstrated a positive response to intervention. Conclusion: In a relatively short period of time, preschoolers' phonemic awareness skills were increased through small-group Tier 2 intervention provided by teachers and SLPs. Findings indicate the potential of Tier 2 interventions to positively impact the future reading skills of children who are at risk for later reading difficulties.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)116-130
    Number of pages15
    JournalLanguage, speech, and hearing services in schools
    Volume40
    Issue number2
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Apr 2009

    Keywords

    • Low income
    • Phonemic awareness
    • Preschoolers
    • Tier 2 intervention

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Language and Linguistics
    • Linguistics and Language
    • Speech and Hearing

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