Control of surface states of titanium dioxide nanoparticles using 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine (dopamine) and 3,4-dihydrophenylacetic acid, which act as ligands to the undercoordinated surface sites (carrier traps), is demonstrated by electrochemical techniques. The deepest traps were found to be most reactive and are selectively removed by the addition of the ligands which enhances the kinetics of electron accumulation in the film. Furthermore, a shift in the Fermi level to more positive potentials was detected for electrodes modified with the negatively charged ligand (3,4-dihydrophenylacetic acid) compared to that of electrodes modified with the positively charged ligand (dopamine). The presence of the negative charge on the ligand also contributed to the underpotential of hydrogen evolution on 3,4-dihydrophenylacetic acid-modified electrodes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Materials Chemistry