Surface morphology and defect formation mechanisms for HgCdTe (211)B grown by molecular beam epitaxy

Yong Chang, C. R. Becker, C. H. Grein, J. Zhao, C. Fulk, T. Casselman, R. Kiran, X. J. Wang, E. Robinson, S. Y. An, S. Mallick, S. Sivananthan, T. Aoki, C. Z. Wang, David Smith, S. Velicu, J. Zhao, J. Crocco, Y. Chen, G. Brill & 4 others P. S. Wijewarnasuriya, N. Dhar, R. Sporken, V. Nathan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The surface morphology and crystallinity of HgCdTe films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on both CdZnTe and CdTe/Si (211)B substrates were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM), as well as scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. Crosshatch patterns and sandy-beach-like morphologies were commonly found on MBE (211) HgCdTe epilayers grown on both CdZnTe and CdTe/Si substrates. The patterns were oriented along the [2̄13], [2̄31], and [01̄1] directions, which were associated with the intersection between the (211) growth plane and each of the eight equivalent HgCdTe slip planes. This was caused by strain-driven operation of slip in these systems with relative large Schmid factor, and was accompanied by dislocation formation as well as surface strain relief. Surface crater defects were associated with relatively high growth temperature and/or low Hg flux, whereas microtwins were associated with relatively low growth temperature and/or high Hg flux. AFM and electron microscopy were used to reveal the formation mechanisms of these defects. HgCdTe/HgCdTe superlattices with layer composition differences of less than 2% were grown by MBE on CdZnTe substrates in order to clarify the formation mechanisms of void defects. The micrographs directly revealed the spiral nature of growth, hence demonstrating that the formation of void defects could be associated with the Burton, Cabrera, and Frank (BCF) growth mode. Void defects, including microvoids and craters, were caused by screw defect clusters, which could be triggered by Te precipitates, impurities, dust, other contamination or flakes. Needle defects originated from screw defect clusters linearly aligned along the [01̄1] directions with opposite Burgers vector directions. They were visible in HgCdTe epilayers grown on interfacial superlattices. Hillocks were generated owing to twin growth of void or needle defects on (111) planes due to low growth temperature and the corresponding insufficient Hg movement on the growth surface. Therefore, in addition to nucleation and growth of HgCdTe in the normal two-dimensional layer growth mode, the BCF growth mode played an important role and should be taken into account during investigation of HgCdTe MBE growth mechanisms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1171-1183
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Volume37
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2008

Fingerprint

Surface defects
Molecular beam epitaxy
Surface morphology
molecular beam epitaxy
defects
Defects
Growth temperature
voids
Epilayers
Superlattices
Needles
Electron microscopy
Atomic force microscopy
screws
Substrates
craters
needles
Fluxes
superlattices
Burgers vector

Keywords

  • Burgers vector
  • Defect
  • Dislocation
  • HgCdTe
  • Molecular beam epitaxy
  • Schmid factor
  • Slip

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

Cite this

Chang, Y., Becker, C. R., Grein, C. H., Zhao, J., Fulk, C., Casselman, T., ... Nathan, V. (2008). Surface morphology and defect formation mechanisms for HgCdTe (211)B grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Journal of Electronic Materials, 37(9), 1171-1183. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11664-008-0477-5

Surface morphology and defect formation mechanisms for HgCdTe (211)B grown by molecular beam epitaxy. / Chang, Yong; Becker, C. R.; Grein, C. H.; Zhao, J.; Fulk, C.; Casselman, T.; Kiran, R.; Wang, X. J.; Robinson, E.; An, S. Y.; Mallick, S.; Sivananthan, S.; Aoki, T.; Wang, C. Z.; Smith, David; Velicu, S.; Zhao, J.; Crocco, J.; Chen, Y.; Brill, G.; Wijewarnasuriya, P. S.; Dhar, N.; Sporken, R.; Nathan, V.

In: Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 37, No. 9, 09.2008, p. 1171-1183.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chang, Y, Becker, CR, Grein, CH, Zhao, J, Fulk, C, Casselman, T, Kiran, R, Wang, XJ, Robinson, E, An, SY, Mallick, S, Sivananthan, S, Aoki, T, Wang, CZ, Smith, D, Velicu, S, Zhao, J, Crocco, J, Chen, Y, Brill, G, Wijewarnasuriya, PS, Dhar, N, Sporken, R & Nathan, V 2008, 'Surface morphology and defect formation mechanisms for HgCdTe (211)B grown by molecular beam epitaxy', Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 1171-1183. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11664-008-0477-5
Chang, Yong ; Becker, C. R. ; Grein, C. H. ; Zhao, J. ; Fulk, C. ; Casselman, T. ; Kiran, R. ; Wang, X. J. ; Robinson, E. ; An, S. Y. ; Mallick, S. ; Sivananthan, S. ; Aoki, T. ; Wang, C. Z. ; Smith, David ; Velicu, S. ; Zhao, J. ; Crocco, J. ; Chen, Y. ; Brill, G. ; Wijewarnasuriya, P. S. ; Dhar, N. ; Sporken, R. ; Nathan, V. / Surface morphology and defect formation mechanisms for HgCdTe (211)B grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In: Journal of Electronic Materials. 2008 ; Vol. 37, No. 9. pp. 1171-1183.
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AU - Chang, Yong

AU - Becker, C. R.

AU - Grein, C. H.

AU - Zhao, J.

AU - Fulk, C.

AU - Casselman, T.

AU - Kiran, R.

AU - Wang, X. J.

AU - Robinson, E.

AU - An, S. Y.

AU - Mallick, S.

AU - Sivananthan, S.

AU - Aoki, T.

AU - Wang, C. Z.

AU - Smith, David

AU - Velicu, S.

AU - Zhao, J.

AU - Crocco, J.

AU - Chen, Y.

AU - Brill, G.

AU - Wijewarnasuriya, P. S.

AU - Dhar, N.

AU - Sporken, R.

AU - Nathan, V.

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N2 - The surface morphology and crystallinity of HgCdTe films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on both CdZnTe and CdTe/Si (211)B substrates were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM), as well as scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. Crosshatch patterns and sandy-beach-like morphologies were commonly found on MBE (211) HgCdTe epilayers grown on both CdZnTe and CdTe/Si substrates. The patterns were oriented along the [2̄13], [2̄31], and [01̄1] directions, which were associated with the intersection between the (211) growth plane and each of the eight equivalent HgCdTe slip planes. This was caused by strain-driven operation of slip in these systems with relative large Schmid factor, and was accompanied by dislocation formation as well as surface strain relief. Surface crater defects were associated with relatively high growth temperature and/or low Hg flux, whereas microtwins were associated with relatively low growth temperature and/or high Hg flux. AFM and electron microscopy were used to reveal the formation mechanisms of these defects. HgCdTe/HgCdTe superlattices with layer composition differences of less than 2% were grown by MBE on CdZnTe substrates in order to clarify the formation mechanisms of void defects. The micrographs directly revealed the spiral nature of growth, hence demonstrating that the formation of void defects could be associated with the Burton, Cabrera, and Frank (BCF) growth mode. Void defects, including microvoids and craters, were caused by screw defect clusters, which could be triggered by Te precipitates, impurities, dust, other contamination or flakes. Needle defects originated from screw defect clusters linearly aligned along the [01̄1] directions with opposite Burgers vector directions. They were visible in HgCdTe epilayers grown on interfacial superlattices. Hillocks were generated owing to twin growth of void or needle defects on (111) planes due to low growth temperature and the corresponding insufficient Hg movement on the growth surface. Therefore, in addition to nucleation and growth of HgCdTe in the normal two-dimensional layer growth mode, the BCF growth mode played an important role and should be taken into account during investigation of HgCdTe MBE growth mechanisms.

AB - The surface morphology and crystallinity of HgCdTe films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on both CdZnTe and CdTe/Si (211)B substrates were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM), as well as scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. Crosshatch patterns and sandy-beach-like morphologies were commonly found on MBE (211) HgCdTe epilayers grown on both CdZnTe and CdTe/Si substrates. The patterns were oriented along the [2̄13], [2̄31], and [01̄1] directions, which were associated with the intersection between the (211) growth plane and each of the eight equivalent HgCdTe slip planes. This was caused by strain-driven operation of slip in these systems with relative large Schmid factor, and was accompanied by dislocation formation as well as surface strain relief. Surface crater defects were associated with relatively high growth temperature and/or low Hg flux, whereas microtwins were associated with relatively low growth temperature and/or high Hg flux. AFM and electron microscopy were used to reveal the formation mechanisms of these defects. HgCdTe/HgCdTe superlattices with layer composition differences of less than 2% were grown by MBE on CdZnTe substrates in order to clarify the formation mechanisms of void defects. The micrographs directly revealed the spiral nature of growth, hence demonstrating that the formation of void defects could be associated with the Burton, Cabrera, and Frank (BCF) growth mode. Void defects, including microvoids and craters, were caused by screw defect clusters, which could be triggered by Te precipitates, impurities, dust, other contamination or flakes. Needle defects originated from screw defect clusters linearly aligned along the [01̄1] directions with opposite Burgers vector directions. They were visible in HgCdTe epilayers grown on interfacial superlattices. Hillocks were generated owing to twin growth of void or needle defects on (111) planes due to low growth temperature and the corresponding insufficient Hg movement on the growth surface. Therefore, in addition to nucleation and growth of HgCdTe in the normal two-dimensional layer growth mode, the BCF growth mode played an important role and should be taken into account during investigation of HgCdTe MBE growth mechanisms.

KW - Burgers vector

KW - Defect

KW - Dislocation

KW - HgCdTe

KW - Molecular beam epitaxy

KW - Schmid factor

KW - Slip

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