Student physical activity patterns: Grade, gender, and activity influences

Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Jeffrey Martin, Qin Lai, Amy Kliber, Brett Reed

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

49 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study was to determine how physical education students' cardiovascular responses as determined by mean heart rate, standard deviation of heart rate, and percentage of time in target heart rate zone varied according to student characteristics. Participants were 505 students in Grades 3 through 12. The Polar Accurex Plus heart rate telemetry system was used to measure the physiological load on the cardiovascular system. Three-way ANOVA results suggested that heart rate patterns in physical education varied according to gender, grade, and activity. For example, secondary school girls were more active in individual activities while secondary school boys were more active in team sport activities. Elementary students were the most active group and had the most variability in their heart rate patterns.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)298-310
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Teaching in Physical Education
Issue number3
StatePublished - Apr 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Activity levels
  • Heart rate
  • Physical education

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Education


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