This paper examines the importance of alliances as an innovation strategy utilized by US biotechnology firms. In doing so, the role of alliances with universities vis-à-vis alliances with industrial companies is emphasized. The biotechnology sector is dominated by few large and many small firms. The small firms are research focused or technology developers. Several large firms are now integrated biopharmaceutical companies. Very few small firms can survive without strengthening their relationships with universities, biotechnology or pharmaceutical or other large companies. These relationships range from licensing agreements, export-import connections to various forms of alliances for R&D, product development and marketing. Large firms supplement in-house R&D by acquiring research products and/or new technologies from small firms as well as universities. A survey of US biotechnology companies is used to show the emergence of alliance relationships, which continue to highlight university linkages, emphasize connections of biotechnology firms with other biotechnology entrepreneurs, and an ongoing effort to build a synergistic relationship with pharmaceutical or other large companies. Most linkages are not confined to the local area; the main locational attribute is the science base or the labour market.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geography, Planning and Development