Stigma has become an increasingly significant challenge for society. Recognition of this problem is indicated by the growing attention paid to it within the management litera-ture, which has provided illuminating insights. However, stigma has primarily been examined at a single level of analysis: individual, occupational, organizational, or in-dustry. Yet, cultural understandings of what is discreditable or taboo do not come from the individual, occupation, organization, or industry that is stigmatized; on the contrary, they come from particular sources that transcend levels. As such, we propose that current silos within the literature may not only be preventing engagement with insights from different levels of analysis but, importantly, be preventing us from truly understanding stigmatization as a social process. To address this issue, we review the stigma literature and then present a cross-level integrative framework of the sources, charac-teristics, and management strategies therein. Our framework provides a common lan-guage that integrates insights across these levels and enables a shift in attention from how actors respond to stigma to broader processes of stigmatization.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Business and International Management
- Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management