Spatially heterogeneous chlorine incorporation in organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells

Yanqi Luo, Shany Gamliel, Sally Nijem, Sigalit Aharon, Martin Holt, Benjamin Stripe, Volker Rose, Mariana Bertoni, Lioz Etgar, David P. Fenning

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Spatial heterogeneities in the chemical makeup of thin film photovoltaic devices are pivotal in determining device efficiency. We report the in-plane spatial distribution and degree of chlorine incorporation in organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite absorbers by means of nondestructive synchrotron-based nanoprobe X-ray fluorescence. The presence of chlorine is positively identified in CH3NH3PbI3 films synthesized with Cl-containing precursors and as an impurity in some films synthesized with nominally Cl-free precursors. The impurity may be introduced from precursors or as contaminants during film synthesis. The films formed from Cl-containing precursors contain roughly an order of magnitude higher amount of chlorine, with Cl:I values greater than 0.02 found whether Cl is present in either the organic or the inorganic precursor for both one- and two-step fabrication processes. A spatial variation in the Cl incorporation is observed within single particles and as well as between particles within a given film, and the standard deviation of the Cl:I ratio across the films is up to 30% of the average value. Understanding and controlling the heterogeneous distribution of chlorine in hybrid perovskite layers may offer a path to improve their photovoltaic performance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6536-6543
Number of pages8
JournalChemistry of Materials
Volume28
Issue number18
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 27 2016

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Chlorine
Impurities
Perovskite
Nanoprobes
Synchrotrons
Spatial distribution
Perovskite solar cells
Lead
Fluorescence
Fabrication
X rays
Thin films

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this

Luo, Y., Gamliel, S., Nijem, S., Aharon, S., Holt, M., Stripe, B., ... Fenning, D. P. (2016). Spatially heterogeneous chlorine incorporation in organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells. Chemistry of Materials, 28(18), 6536-6543. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b02065

Spatially heterogeneous chlorine incorporation in organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells. / Luo, Yanqi; Gamliel, Shany; Nijem, Sally; Aharon, Sigalit; Holt, Martin; Stripe, Benjamin; Rose, Volker; Bertoni, Mariana; Etgar, Lioz; Fenning, David P.

In: Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 28, No. 18, 27.09.2016, p. 6536-6543.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Luo, Y, Gamliel, S, Nijem, S, Aharon, S, Holt, M, Stripe, B, Rose, V, Bertoni, M, Etgar, L & Fenning, DP 2016, 'Spatially heterogeneous chlorine incorporation in organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells', Chemistry of Materials, vol. 28, no. 18, pp. 6536-6543. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b02065
Luo, Yanqi ; Gamliel, Shany ; Nijem, Sally ; Aharon, Sigalit ; Holt, Martin ; Stripe, Benjamin ; Rose, Volker ; Bertoni, Mariana ; Etgar, Lioz ; Fenning, David P. / Spatially heterogeneous chlorine incorporation in organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells. In: Chemistry of Materials. 2016 ; Vol. 28, No. 18. pp. 6536-6543.
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