Spatially heterogeneous chlorine incorporation in organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells

Yanqi Luo, Shany Gamliel, Sally Nijem, Sigalit Aharon, Martin Holt, Benjamin Stripe, Volker Rose, Mariana Bertoni, Lioz Etgar, David P. Fenning

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Scopus citations

Abstract

Spatial heterogeneities in the chemical makeup of thin film photovoltaic devices are pivotal in determining device efficiency. We report the in-plane spatial distribution and degree of chlorine incorporation in organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite absorbers by means of nondestructive synchrotron-based nanoprobe X-ray fluorescence. The presence of chlorine is positively identified in CH3NH3PbI3 films synthesized with Cl-containing precursors and as an impurity in some films synthesized with nominally Cl-free precursors. The impurity may be introduced from precursors or as contaminants during film synthesis. The films formed from Cl-containing precursors contain roughly an order of magnitude higher amount of chlorine, with Cl:I values greater than 0.02 found whether Cl is present in either the organic or the inorganic precursor for both one- and two-step fabrication processes. A spatial variation in the Cl incorporation is observed within single particles and as well as between particles within a given film, and the standard deviation of the Cl:I ratio across the films is up to 30% of the average value. Understanding and controlling the heterogeneous distribution of chlorine in hybrid perovskite layers may offer a path to improve their photovoltaic performance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6536-6543
Number of pages8
JournalChemistry of Materials
Volume28
Issue number18
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 27 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Materials Chemistry

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    Luo, Y., Gamliel, S., Nijem, S., Aharon, S., Holt, M., Stripe, B., Rose, V., Bertoni, M., Etgar, L., & Fenning, D. P. (2016). Spatially heterogeneous chlorine incorporation in organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells. Chemistry of Materials, 28(18), 6536-6543. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b02065