Similarities and differences in parental investment for mothers and fathers

Leanne Whiteside-Mansell, Robert H. Bradley, Ernest Rakow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


This study examines the factorial invariance (comparability) of a measure designed to assess four aspects of parents' investment in children for mothers and fathers. Participants were 70 couples, a subset of respondents participating in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Parenting investment was assessed when the child was 15 months old during a home visit using the Parental Investment in the Child (PIC) questionnaire. Results indicate that the dimensions of PIC were useful for both mothers and fathers (Separation Anxiety, Delight, Acceptance of the Parenting Role, and Knowledge and Sensitivity) based on confirmatory factor analyses that considered the dependent nature of the constructs within couples. However, differences were found in the reliability of specific items between mothers and fathers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)63-83
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Family Issues
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2001
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)


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