Sex-specific association patterns in bonobos and chimpanzees reflect species differences in cooperation

Martin Surbeck, Cédric Girard-Buttoz, Christophe Boesch, Catherine Crockford, Barbara Fruth, Gottfried Hohmann, Kevin Langergraber, Klaus Zuberbühler, Roman M. Wittig, Roger Mundry

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In several group-living species, individuals’ social preferences are thought to be influenced by cooperation. For some societies with fission-fusion dynamics, sex-specific association patterns reflect sex differences in cooperation in within- and betweengroup contexts. In our study, we investigated this hypothesis further by comparing sex-specific association patterns in two closely related species, chimpanzees and bonobos, which differ in the level of between-group competition and in the degree to which sex and kinship influence dyadic cooperation. Here, we used long-term party composition data collected on five chimpanzee and two bonobo communities and assessed, for each individual of 10 years and older, the sex of its top associate and of all conspecifics with whom it associated more frequently than expected by chance. We found clear speciesdifferences in association patterns. While in all chimpanzee communities males and females associated more with same-sex partners, in bonobos males and females tended to associate preferentially with females, but the female association preference for other females is lower than in chimpanzees. Our results also show that, for bonobos (but not for chimpanzees), association patterns were predominantly driven by mother-offspring relationships. These species differences in association patterns reflect the high levels of male-male cooperation in chimpanzees and of mother- son cooperation in bonobos. Finally, female chimpanzees showed intense association with a few other females, and male chimpanzees showed more uniform association across males. In bonobos, the most differentiated associations were from males towards females. Chimpanzee male association patterns mirror fundamental human male social traits and, as in humans, may have evolved as a response to strong between-group competition. The lack of such a pattern in a closely related species with a lower degree of between-group competition further supports this notion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-20
Number of pages20
JournalRoyal Society Open Science
Volume4
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2017

Fingerprint

Pan paniscus
interspecific variation
Pan troglodytes
gender
kinship
gender differences

Keywords

  • Competition
  • Kinship
  • Pan paniscus
  • Pan troglodytes
  • Sexual segregation
  • Sociality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Surbeck, M., Girard-Buttoz, C., Boesch, C., Crockford, C., Fruth, B., Hohmann, G., ... Mundry, R. (2017). Sex-specific association patterns in bonobos and chimpanzees reflect species differences in cooperation. Royal Society Open Science, 4(5), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.161081

Sex-specific association patterns in bonobos and chimpanzees reflect species differences in cooperation. / Surbeck, Martin; Girard-Buttoz, Cédric; Boesch, Christophe; Crockford, Catherine; Fruth, Barbara; Hohmann, Gottfried; Langergraber, Kevin; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Wittig, Roman M.; Mundry, Roger.

In: Royal Society Open Science, Vol. 4, No. 5, 01.05.2017, p. 1-20.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Surbeck, M, Girard-Buttoz, C, Boesch, C, Crockford, C, Fruth, B, Hohmann, G, Langergraber, K, Zuberbühler, K, Wittig, RM & Mundry, R 2017, 'Sex-specific association patterns in bonobos and chimpanzees reflect species differences in cooperation', Royal Society Open Science, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.161081
Surbeck, Martin ; Girard-Buttoz, Cédric ; Boesch, Christophe ; Crockford, Catherine ; Fruth, Barbara ; Hohmann, Gottfried ; Langergraber, Kevin ; Zuberbühler, Klaus ; Wittig, Roman M. ; Mundry, Roger. / Sex-specific association patterns in bonobos and chimpanzees reflect species differences in cooperation. In: Royal Society Open Science. 2017 ; Vol. 4, No. 5. pp. 1-20.
@article{167897624fe3463c880063587a2d77a5,
title = "Sex-specific association patterns in bonobos and chimpanzees reflect species differences in cooperation",
abstract = "In several group-living species, individuals’ social preferences are thought to be influenced by cooperation. For some societies with fission-fusion dynamics, sex-specific association patterns reflect sex differences in cooperation in within- and betweengroup contexts. In our study, we investigated this hypothesis further by comparing sex-specific association patterns in two closely related species, chimpanzees and bonobos, which differ in the level of between-group competition and in the degree to which sex and kinship influence dyadic cooperation. Here, we used long-term party composition data collected on five chimpanzee and two bonobo communities and assessed, for each individual of 10 years and older, the sex of its top associate and of all conspecifics with whom it associated more frequently than expected by chance. We found clear speciesdifferences in association patterns. While in all chimpanzee communities males and females associated more with same-sex partners, in bonobos males and females tended to associate preferentially with females, but the female association preference for other females is lower than in chimpanzees. Our results also show that, for bonobos (but not for chimpanzees), association patterns were predominantly driven by mother-offspring relationships. These species differences in association patterns reflect the high levels of male-male cooperation in chimpanzees and of mother- son cooperation in bonobos. Finally, female chimpanzees showed intense association with a few other females, and male chimpanzees showed more uniform association across males. In bonobos, the most differentiated associations were from males towards females. Chimpanzee male association patterns mirror fundamental human male social traits and, as in humans, may have evolved as a response to strong between-group competition. The lack of such a pattern in a closely related species with a lower degree of between-group competition further supports this notion.",
keywords = "Competition, Kinship, Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Sexual segregation, Sociality",
author = "Martin Surbeck and C{\'e}dric Girard-Buttoz and Christophe Boesch and Catherine Crockford and Barbara Fruth and Gottfried Hohmann and Kevin Langergraber and Klaus Zuberb{\"u}hler and Wittig, {Roman M.} and Roger Mundry",
year = "2017",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1098/rsos.161081",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "4",
pages = "1--20",
journal = "Royal Society Open Science",
issn = "2054-5703",
publisher = "The Royal Society",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Sex-specific association patterns in bonobos and chimpanzees reflect species differences in cooperation

AU - Surbeck, Martin

AU - Girard-Buttoz, Cédric

AU - Boesch, Christophe

AU - Crockford, Catherine

AU - Fruth, Barbara

AU - Hohmann, Gottfried

AU - Langergraber, Kevin

AU - Zuberbühler, Klaus

AU - Wittig, Roman M.

AU - Mundry, Roger

PY - 2017/5/1

Y1 - 2017/5/1

N2 - In several group-living species, individuals’ social preferences are thought to be influenced by cooperation. For some societies with fission-fusion dynamics, sex-specific association patterns reflect sex differences in cooperation in within- and betweengroup contexts. In our study, we investigated this hypothesis further by comparing sex-specific association patterns in two closely related species, chimpanzees and bonobos, which differ in the level of between-group competition and in the degree to which sex and kinship influence dyadic cooperation. Here, we used long-term party composition data collected on five chimpanzee and two bonobo communities and assessed, for each individual of 10 years and older, the sex of its top associate and of all conspecifics with whom it associated more frequently than expected by chance. We found clear speciesdifferences in association patterns. While in all chimpanzee communities males and females associated more with same-sex partners, in bonobos males and females tended to associate preferentially with females, but the female association preference for other females is lower than in chimpanzees. Our results also show that, for bonobos (but not for chimpanzees), association patterns were predominantly driven by mother-offspring relationships. These species differences in association patterns reflect the high levels of male-male cooperation in chimpanzees and of mother- son cooperation in bonobos. Finally, female chimpanzees showed intense association with a few other females, and male chimpanzees showed more uniform association across males. In bonobos, the most differentiated associations were from males towards females. Chimpanzee male association patterns mirror fundamental human male social traits and, as in humans, may have evolved as a response to strong between-group competition. The lack of such a pattern in a closely related species with a lower degree of between-group competition further supports this notion.

AB - In several group-living species, individuals’ social preferences are thought to be influenced by cooperation. For some societies with fission-fusion dynamics, sex-specific association patterns reflect sex differences in cooperation in within- and betweengroup contexts. In our study, we investigated this hypothesis further by comparing sex-specific association patterns in two closely related species, chimpanzees and bonobos, which differ in the level of between-group competition and in the degree to which sex and kinship influence dyadic cooperation. Here, we used long-term party composition data collected on five chimpanzee and two bonobo communities and assessed, for each individual of 10 years and older, the sex of its top associate and of all conspecifics with whom it associated more frequently than expected by chance. We found clear speciesdifferences in association patterns. While in all chimpanzee communities males and females associated more with same-sex partners, in bonobos males and females tended to associate preferentially with females, but the female association preference for other females is lower than in chimpanzees. Our results also show that, for bonobos (but not for chimpanzees), association patterns were predominantly driven by mother-offspring relationships. These species differences in association patterns reflect the high levels of male-male cooperation in chimpanzees and of mother- son cooperation in bonobos. Finally, female chimpanzees showed intense association with a few other females, and male chimpanzees showed more uniform association across males. In bonobos, the most differentiated associations were from males towards females. Chimpanzee male association patterns mirror fundamental human male social traits and, as in humans, may have evolved as a response to strong between-group competition. The lack of such a pattern in a closely related species with a lower degree of between-group competition further supports this notion.

KW - Competition

KW - Kinship

KW - Pan paniscus

KW - Pan troglodytes

KW - Sexual segregation

KW - Sociality

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85018459298&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85018459298&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1098/rsos.161081

DO - 10.1098/rsos.161081

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85018459298

VL - 4

SP - 1

EP - 20

JO - Royal Society Open Science

JF - Royal Society Open Science

SN - 2054-5703

IS - 5

ER -