Silicon wafers with a complex but known dopant profile were used to explore possible methods for improving the reliability of off-axis electron holography for quantitative determination of electrostatic potential profiles in doped semiconductor devices. The variability of results from nominally identical structures was attributed to local charging and associated external fields, forcing the development of a more robust approach to hologram analysis that incorporated an additional phase correction factor rather than rely on vacuum for phase flattening. Consistent results in close agreement with simulated profiles based on measured dopant distributions could then be obtained. Carbon coating was shown to be effective in reducing accumulation of charge caused by emission of secondary electrons. Overall, this work demonstrates that reliable potential profiles from unbiased samples should be obtainable on a routine basis provided that regions suitable for flattening of the phase profile can be identified.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics