Water treatment processes can cause secondary changes in water chemistry that alter finished water quality including chloride, sulfate, natural organic matter (NOM), and metal release. Hence, the goal of this research was to provide an improved understanding of the chloride-to-sulfate mass ratio (CSMR) with regards to chloride and sulfate variations at full-scale water treatment plants and corrosion potential under simulated premise plumbing conditions. Laboratory corrosion studies were conducted using Pb-Sn solder/Cu tubing galvanic cells exposed to model waters with low (approx. 5 mg/L Cl- and 10 mg/L SO42-) and high (approx. 50 mg/L Cl- and 100 mg/L SO42-) concentrations of chloride and sulfate at a constant CSMR of ∼0.5. The role of NOM during corrosion was also evaluated by changing the type of organic material. In addition, full-scale sampling was conducted to quantify the raw water variability of chloride, sulfate, and NOM concentrations and the changes to these parameters from magnetic ion exchange treatment. Test conditions with higher concentrations of chloride and sulfate released significantly more lead than the lower chloride and sulfate test waters. In addition, the source of NOM was a key factor in the amount of lead released with the model organic compounds yielding significantly less lead release than aquatic NOM.
- Chloride-to-sulfate mass ratio
- Magnetic ion exchange
- Natural organic matter
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecological Modeling
- Water Science and Technology
- Waste Management and Disposal