Recognizing the centrality of gender identity and stereotype knowledge in gender development and moving toward theoretical integration: Reply to Bandura and Bussey (2004)

Carol Martin, Diane N. Ruble, Joel Szkrybalo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

22 Scopus citations


Most of the critique in the A. Bandura and K. Bussey (2004) commentary is a misunderstanding or misrepresentation of the points made by C. L. Martin, D. N. Ruble, and J. Szkrybalo in their 2002 Psychological Bulletin article. First, Martin et al. never intended to present a comprehensive theory; instead, it was a review of 2 different cognitive approaches to gender development. Second, there is no time line test that has been failed; instead, gender cognitions may occur earlier than initially believed. Third, Bandura and Bussey dismissed central gender cognitions - gender identity and gender stereotype knowledge - despite considerable evidence in their support. Fourth, Bandura and Bussey never addressed the gaps and ambiguities inherent in their theory that Martin et al. questioned in their earlier article. Finally, Bandura and Bussey's misunderstandings of cognitive theorists' views on socialization agents, sociocultural influences, agency, and motivation created theoretical rifts where none exist.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)702-710
Number of pages9
JournalPsychological bulletin
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1 2004


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)

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