Randomized Controlled Trial to Prevent Infant Overweight in a High-Risk Population

Elizabeth Reifsnider, David P. McCormick, Karen W. Cullen, Michael Todd, Michael W. Moramarco, Martina R. Gallagher, Lucia Reyna

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives: Infants are at risk of overweight. Infant overweight predisposes child, adolescent, and adult to obesity. We hypothesized that parent education, initiated prenatally and provided in the home, would reduce the incidence of infant overweight at age 12 months. Methods: Pregnant obese Latina women were recruited at Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and randomized to intervention versus control. Intervention subjects received home visits by trained Spanish-fluent community health workers who provided counseling on infant growth, breastfeeding, nutrition, child development, sleep, physical activity, and safety. Promotoras did not visit the control subjects. A research assistant collected outcome data on all subjects. Results: Compared to controls, parent education did not reduce infant overweight. Infant overweight developed rapidly and was present in 46% of infants by age 6 months. Infants overweight at 6 months were likely to be overweight at age 12 months (r = 0.60, P < .0001). Overweight was more common in formula-fed infants at ages 6 months (P < .06) and 12 months (P = .005). Breastfeeding was less common in families with employed mothers (P = .02) and unemployed fathers (P < .01), but the father living with the mother at the time of the prenatal visit predicted successful breastfeeding at infant age 2 months (P < .003). Compared to formula feeding, overweight at age 12 months was 2.7 times less likely for infants breastfed for ≥2 months (P = .01). Conclusions: The lack of success of the intervention may be explained in part by a high cesarean section rate in the intervention group, food and employment insecurity, and confounding by WIC breastfeeding promotion, which was available to all mothers. Breastfeeding was the most important mediator of infant overweight. The study supports efforts by WIC to vigorously promote breastfeeding.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAcademic Pediatrics
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018

Fingerprint

Randomized Controlled Trials
Breast Feeding
Population
Mothers
Fathers
Food Assistance
Education
Infant Formula
House Calls
Food Supply
Child Development
Hispanic Americans
Cesarean Section
Counseling
Sleep
Obesity
Exercise
Safety
Incidence
Growth

Keywords

  • Child
  • Infant
  • Intervention
  • Obesity
  • Prevention

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Cite this

Randomized Controlled Trial to Prevent Infant Overweight in a High-Risk Population. / Reifsnider, Elizabeth; McCormick, David P.; Cullen, Karen W.; Todd, Michael; Moramarco, Michael W.; Gallagher, Martina R.; Reyna, Lucia.

In: Academic Pediatrics, 01.01.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Reifsnider, Elizabeth ; McCormick, David P. ; Cullen, Karen W. ; Todd, Michael ; Moramarco, Michael W. ; Gallagher, Martina R. ; Reyna, Lucia. / Randomized Controlled Trial to Prevent Infant Overweight in a High-Risk Population. In: Academic Pediatrics. 2018.
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abstract = "Objectives: Infants are at risk of overweight. Infant overweight predisposes child, adolescent, and adult to obesity. We hypothesized that parent education, initiated prenatally and provided in the home, would reduce the incidence of infant overweight at age 12 months. Methods: Pregnant obese Latina women were recruited at Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and randomized to intervention versus control. Intervention subjects received home visits by trained Spanish-fluent community health workers who provided counseling on infant growth, breastfeeding, nutrition, child development, sleep, physical activity, and safety. Promotoras did not visit the control subjects. A research assistant collected outcome data on all subjects. Results: Compared to controls, parent education did not reduce infant overweight. Infant overweight developed rapidly and was present in 46{\%} of infants by age 6 months. Infants overweight at 6 months were likely to be overweight at age 12 months (r = 0.60, P < .0001). Overweight was more common in formula-fed infants at ages 6 months (P < .06) and 12 months (P = .005). Breastfeeding was less common in families with employed mothers (P = .02) and unemployed fathers (P < .01), but the father living with the mother at the time of the prenatal visit predicted successful breastfeeding at infant age 2 months (P < .003). Compared to formula feeding, overweight at age 12 months was 2.7 times less likely for infants breastfed for ≥2 months (P = .01). Conclusions: The lack of success of the intervention may be explained in part by a high cesarean section rate in the intervention group, food and employment insecurity, and confounding by WIC breastfeeding promotion, which was available to all mothers. Breastfeeding was the most important mediator of infant overweight. The study supports efforts by WIC to vigorously promote breastfeeding.",
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AB - Objectives: Infants are at risk of overweight. Infant overweight predisposes child, adolescent, and adult to obesity. We hypothesized that parent education, initiated prenatally and provided in the home, would reduce the incidence of infant overweight at age 12 months. Methods: Pregnant obese Latina women were recruited at Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and randomized to intervention versus control. Intervention subjects received home visits by trained Spanish-fluent community health workers who provided counseling on infant growth, breastfeeding, nutrition, child development, sleep, physical activity, and safety. Promotoras did not visit the control subjects. A research assistant collected outcome data on all subjects. Results: Compared to controls, parent education did not reduce infant overweight. Infant overweight developed rapidly and was present in 46% of infants by age 6 months. Infants overweight at 6 months were likely to be overweight at age 12 months (r = 0.60, P < .0001). Overweight was more common in formula-fed infants at ages 6 months (P < .06) and 12 months (P = .005). Breastfeeding was less common in families with employed mothers (P = .02) and unemployed fathers (P < .01), but the father living with the mother at the time of the prenatal visit predicted successful breastfeeding at infant age 2 months (P < .003). Compared to formula feeding, overweight at age 12 months was 2.7 times less likely for infants breastfed for ≥2 months (P = .01). Conclusions: The lack of success of the intervention may be explained in part by a high cesarean section rate in the intervention group, food and employment insecurity, and confounding by WIC breastfeeding promotion, which was available to all mothers. Breastfeeding was the most important mediator of infant overweight. The study supports efforts by WIC to vigorously promote breastfeeding.

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