Profiles of Childhood Trauma

Betrayal, Frequency, and Psychological Distress in Late Adolescence

Christina Gamache Martin, Mark J. Van Ryzin, Thomas J. Dishion

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: With an emphasis on betrayal trauma, this study used latent profile analysis to examine how childhood traumas co-occur and whether trauma patterns differentially predicted psychological distress. Method: A community sample of 806 adolescents and young adults participated. Youths reported their trauma histories, and lifetime DSM-IV disorders were assessed using a structured diagnostic interview. Results: Latent profile analysis yielded 5 profiles: high betrayal trauma physical violence and emotional abuse (HBTPE), high betrayal trauma sexual and emotional abuse (HBTSE), low betrayal trauma (LBT), parent death (PD), and a no/low trauma profile. Logistic regression analyses compared youths in the no/low trauma profile to those in the trauma profiles. Youths in the HBTPE profile were more likely to have moderate/severe major depressive disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 2.92, 95% CI [1.16, 7.32]), posttraumatic stress disorder (OR = 4.33, 95% CI [1.34, 14.03]), and hallucinations (OR = 5.03, 95% CI [2.00, 12.67]); youths in the HBTSE and LBT profiles were more likely to experience hallucinations (OR = 3.19, 95% CI [1.21, 8.39] and OR = 3.20, 95% CI [1.01, 10.19], respectively); and youths in the PD profile were more likely to have moderate/severe depression (OR = 2.42, 95% CI [1.07, 5.43]). Conclusions: Specific trauma types co-occurred when considering type, level of betrayal, and frequency. The emergence of the 2 high betrayal trauma profiles, with differing symptom presentations, suggests that experiences of high betrayal traumas are not homogenous and specific trauma-focused interventions may be more appropriate for differing trauma profiles. (PsycINFO Database Record

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalPsychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 18 2016

Fingerprint

Psychology
Wounds and Injuries
Odds Ratio
Hallucinations
Sex Offenses
Major Depressive Disorder
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Young Adult
Logistic Models
Regression Analysis
Interviews
Depression

Keywords

  • Betrayal trauma
  • Childhood trauma
  • Latent profile analysis
  • Mental health
  • Trauma frequency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Social Psychology

Cite this

Profiles of Childhood Trauma : Betrayal, Frequency, and Psychological Distress in Late Adolescence. / Gamache Martin, Christina; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Dishion, Thomas J.

In: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 18.01.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Objective: With an emphasis on betrayal trauma, this study used latent profile analysis to examine how childhood traumas co-occur and whether trauma patterns differentially predicted psychological distress. Method: A community sample of 806 adolescents and young adults participated. Youths reported their trauma histories, and lifetime DSM-IV disorders were assessed using a structured diagnostic interview. Results: Latent profile analysis yielded 5 profiles: high betrayal trauma physical violence and emotional abuse (HBTPE), high betrayal trauma sexual and emotional abuse (HBTSE), low betrayal trauma (LBT), parent death (PD), and a no/low trauma profile. Logistic regression analyses compared youths in the no/low trauma profile to those in the trauma profiles. Youths in the HBTPE profile were more likely to have moderate/severe major depressive disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 2.92, 95{\%} CI [1.16, 7.32]), posttraumatic stress disorder (OR = 4.33, 95{\%} CI [1.34, 14.03]), and hallucinations (OR = 5.03, 95{\%} CI [2.00, 12.67]); youths in the HBTSE and LBT profiles were more likely to experience hallucinations (OR = 3.19, 95{\%} CI [1.21, 8.39] and OR = 3.20, 95{\%} CI [1.01, 10.19], respectively); and youths in the PD profile were more likely to have moderate/severe depression (OR = 2.42, 95{\%} CI [1.07, 5.43]). Conclusions: Specific trauma types co-occurred when considering type, level of betrayal, and frequency. The emergence of the 2 high betrayal trauma profiles, with differing symptom presentations, suggests that experiences of high betrayal traumas are not homogenous and specific trauma-focused interventions may be more appropriate for differing trauma profiles. (PsycINFO Database Record",
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AB - Objective: With an emphasis on betrayal trauma, this study used latent profile analysis to examine how childhood traumas co-occur and whether trauma patterns differentially predicted psychological distress. Method: A community sample of 806 adolescents and young adults participated. Youths reported their trauma histories, and lifetime DSM-IV disorders were assessed using a structured diagnostic interview. Results: Latent profile analysis yielded 5 profiles: high betrayal trauma physical violence and emotional abuse (HBTPE), high betrayal trauma sexual and emotional abuse (HBTSE), low betrayal trauma (LBT), parent death (PD), and a no/low trauma profile. Logistic regression analyses compared youths in the no/low trauma profile to those in the trauma profiles. Youths in the HBTPE profile were more likely to have moderate/severe major depressive disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 2.92, 95% CI [1.16, 7.32]), posttraumatic stress disorder (OR = 4.33, 95% CI [1.34, 14.03]), and hallucinations (OR = 5.03, 95% CI [2.00, 12.67]); youths in the HBTSE and LBT profiles were more likely to experience hallucinations (OR = 3.19, 95% CI [1.21, 8.39] and OR = 3.20, 95% CI [1.01, 10.19], respectively); and youths in the PD profile were more likely to have moderate/severe depression (OR = 2.42, 95% CI [1.07, 5.43]). Conclusions: Specific trauma types co-occurred when considering type, level of betrayal, and frequency. The emergence of the 2 high betrayal trauma profiles, with differing symptom presentations, suggests that experiences of high betrayal traumas are not homogenous and specific trauma-focused interventions may be more appropriate for differing trauma profiles. (PsycINFO Database Record

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