Potent rewarding and reinforcing effects of the synthetic cathinone 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)

Lucas R. Watterson, Peter R. Kufahl, Natali E. Nemirovsky, Kaveish Sewalia, Megan Grabenauer, Brian F. Thomas, Julie A. Marusich, Scott Wegner, Michael Olive

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

133 Scopus citations

Abstract

Reports of abuse and toxic effects of synthetic cathinones, frequently sold as 'bath salts' or 'legal highs', have increased dramatically in recent years. One of the most widely used synthetic cathinones is 3,4- methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). The current study evaluated the abuse potential of MDPV by assessing its ability to support intravenous self-administration and to lower thresholds for intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) in rats. In the first experiment, the rats were trained to intravenously self-administer MDPV in daily 2-hour sessions for 10 days at doses of 0.05, 0.1 or 0.2 mg/kg per infusion. The rats were then allowed to self-administer MDPV under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement. Next, the rats self-administered MDPV for an additional 10 days under short access (ShA; 2 hours/day) or long access (LgA; 6 hours/day) conditions to assess escalation of intake. A separate group of rats underwent the same procedures, with the exception of self-administering methamphetamine (0.05 mg/kg per infusion) instead of MDPV. In the second experiment, the effects of MDPV on ICSS thresholds following acute administration (0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) were assessed. MDPV maintained self-administration across all doses tested. A positive relationship between MDPV dose and breakpoints for reinforcement under PR conditions was observed. LgA conditions led to escalation of drug intake at 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg doses, and rats self-administering methamphetamine showed similar patterns of escalation. Finally, MDPV significantly lowered ICSS thresholds at all doses tested. Together, these findings indicate that MDPV has reinforcing properties and activates brain reward circuitry, suggesting a potential for abuse and addiction in humans.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)165-174
Number of pages10
JournalAddiction Biology
Volume19
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2014

Keywords

  • 4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone
  • abuse liability
  • bath salt
  • extended access
  • intracranial self-stimulation
  • intravenous self - administration
  • synthetic cathinone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Pharmacology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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