Parasites in the city: Degree of urbanization predicts poxvirus and coccidian infections in house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus)

Mathieu Giraudeau, Melanie Mousel, Stevan Earl, Kevin McGraw

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

54 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Urbanization can strongly impact the physiology, behavior, and fitness of animals. Conditions in cities may also promote the transmission and success of animal parasites and pathogens. However, to date, no studies have examined variation in the prevalence or severity of several distinct pathogens/parasites along a gradient of urbanization in animals or if these infections increase physiological stress in urban populations. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here, we measured the prevalence and severity of infection with intestinal coccidians (Isospora sp.) and the canarypox virus (Avipoxvirus) along an urban-to-rural gradient in wild male house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus). In addition, we quantified an important stress indicator in animals (oxidative stress) and several axes of urbanization, including human population density and land-use patterns within a 1 km radius of each trapping site. Prevalence of poxvirus infection and severity of coccidial infection were significantly associated with the degree of urbanization, with an increase of infection in more urban areas. The degrees of infection by the two parasites were not correlated along the urban-rural gradient. Finally, levels of oxidative damage in plasma were not associated with infection or with urbanization metrics. Conclusion/Significance: These results indicate that the physical presence of humans in cities and the associated altered urban landscape characteristics are associated with increased infections with both a virus and a gastrointestinal parasite in this common songbird resident of North American cities. Though we failed to find elevations in urban- or parasite/pathogen- mediated oxidative stress, humans may facilitate infections in these birds via bird feeders (i.e. horizontal disease transmission due to unsanitary surfaces and/or elevations in host population densities) and/or via elevations in other forms of physiological stress (e.g. corticosterone, nutritional).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere86747
JournalPLoS One
Volume9
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 4 2014

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Poxviridae Infections
Poxviridae
Finches
Urbanization
urbanization
Parasites
Animals
parasites
Pathogens
Infection
Oxidative stress
infection
Birds
Viruses
Physiological Stress
Population Density
Avipoxvirus
Canarypox virus
Oxidative Stress
Physiology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Parasites in the city : Degree of urbanization predicts poxvirus and coccidian infections in house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus). / Giraudeau, Mathieu; Mousel, Melanie; Earl, Stevan; McGraw, Kevin.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 9, No. 2, e86747, 04.02.2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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