This research uses survey data and count data of formal rules in a Dutch organization to investigate the relationships between an objective measure of formalization and subjective measures of formalization and red tape. We find that red tape perceptions are related to perceptions of formalization. Second, we find that perceived formalization is weakly, significantly related to objective measures of formalization but that objective formalization measures do not correspond to higher levels of red tape perceptions. We conclude that red tape and formalization are distinct concepts, but question the claim that formalization is a necessary condition for red tape.
- Organizational rules
- Red tape
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Management Information Systems
- Management of Technology and Innovation