Nucleation and growth of single layer graphene on electrodeposited Cu by cold wall chemical vapor deposition

Shantanu Das, Jeffery Drucker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The nucleation density and average size of graphene crystallites grown using cold wall chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on 4 μm thick Cu films electrodeposited on W substrates can be tuned by varying growth parameters. Growth at a fixed substrate temperature of 1000 °C and total pressure of 700 Torr using Ar, H2 and CH4 mixtures enabled the contribution of total flow rate, CH4:H2 ratio and dilution of the CH4/H2 mixture by Ar to be identified. The largest variation in nucleation density was obtained by varying the CH4:H2 ratio. The observed morphological changes are analogous to those that would be expected if the deposition rate were varied at fixed substrate temperature for physical deposition using thermal evaporation. The graphene crystallite boundary morphology progresses from irregular/jagged through convex hexagonal to regular hexagonal as the effective C deposition rate decreases. This observation suggests that edge diffusion of C atoms along the crystallite boundaries, in addition to H2 etching, may contribute to shape evolution of the graphene crystallites. These results demonstrate that graphene grown using cold wall CVD follows a nucleation and growth mechanism similar to hot wall CVD. As a consequence, the vast knowledge base relevant to hot wall CVD may be exploited for graphene synthesis by the industrially preferable cold wall method.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number105601
JournalNanotechnology
Volume28
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2017

Fingerprint

Graphite
Graphene
Chemical vapor deposition
Nucleation
Deposition rates
Crystallites
Substrates
Thermal evaporation
Dilution
Etching
Flow rate
Atoms
Temperature

Keywords

  • cold wall CVD
  • grapheme
  • nucleation density

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

Nucleation and growth of single layer graphene on electrodeposited Cu by cold wall chemical vapor deposition. / Das, Shantanu; Drucker, Jeffery.

In: Nanotechnology, Vol. 28, No. 10, 105601, 01.02.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{5dff05b231574018aed3bf57db8dd2dc,
title = "Nucleation and growth of single layer graphene on electrodeposited Cu by cold wall chemical vapor deposition",
abstract = "The nucleation density and average size of graphene crystallites grown using cold wall chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on 4 μm thick Cu films electrodeposited on W substrates can be tuned by varying growth parameters. Growth at a fixed substrate temperature of 1000 °C and total pressure of 700 Torr using Ar, H2 and CH4 mixtures enabled the contribution of total flow rate, CH4:H2 ratio and dilution of the CH4/H2 mixture by Ar to be identified. The largest variation in nucleation density was obtained by varying the CH4:H2 ratio. The observed morphological changes are analogous to those that would be expected if the deposition rate were varied at fixed substrate temperature for physical deposition using thermal evaporation. The graphene crystallite boundary morphology progresses from irregular/jagged through convex hexagonal to regular hexagonal as the effective C deposition rate decreases. This observation suggests that edge diffusion of C atoms along the crystallite boundaries, in addition to H2 etching, may contribute to shape evolution of the graphene crystallites. These results demonstrate that graphene grown using cold wall CVD follows a nucleation and growth mechanism similar to hot wall CVD. As a consequence, the vast knowledge base relevant to hot wall CVD may be exploited for graphene synthesis by the industrially preferable cold wall method.",
keywords = "cold wall CVD, grapheme, nucleation density",
author = "Shantanu Das and Jeffery Drucker",
year = "2017",
month = "2",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1088/1361-6528/aa593b",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "28",
journal = "Nanotechnology",
issn = "0957-4484",
publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",
number = "10",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Nucleation and growth of single layer graphene on electrodeposited Cu by cold wall chemical vapor deposition

AU - Das, Shantanu

AU - Drucker, Jeffery

PY - 2017/2/1

Y1 - 2017/2/1

N2 - The nucleation density and average size of graphene crystallites grown using cold wall chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on 4 μm thick Cu films electrodeposited on W substrates can be tuned by varying growth parameters. Growth at a fixed substrate temperature of 1000 °C and total pressure of 700 Torr using Ar, H2 and CH4 mixtures enabled the contribution of total flow rate, CH4:H2 ratio and dilution of the CH4/H2 mixture by Ar to be identified. The largest variation in nucleation density was obtained by varying the CH4:H2 ratio. The observed morphological changes are analogous to those that would be expected if the deposition rate were varied at fixed substrate temperature for physical deposition using thermal evaporation. The graphene crystallite boundary morphology progresses from irregular/jagged through convex hexagonal to regular hexagonal as the effective C deposition rate decreases. This observation suggests that edge diffusion of C atoms along the crystallite boundaries, in addition to H2 etching, may contribute to shape evolution of the graphene crystallites. These results demonstrate that graphene grown using cold wall CVD follows a nucleation and growth mechanism similar to hot wall CVD. As a consequence, the vast knowledge base relevant to hot wall CVD may be exploited for graphene synthesis by the industrially preferable cold wall method.

AB - The nucleation density and average size of graphene crystallites grown using cold wall chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on 4 μm thick Cu films electrodeposited on W substrates can be tuned by varying growth parameters. Growth at a fixed substrate temperature of 1000 °C and total pressure of 700 Torr using Ar, H2 and CH4 mixtures enabled the contribution of total flow rate, CH4:H2 ratio and dilution of the CH4/H2 mixture by Ar to be identified. The largest variation in nucleation density was obtained by varying the CH4:H2 ratio. The observed morphological changes are analogous to those that would be expected if the deposition rate were varied at fixed substrate temperature for physical deposition using thermal evaporation. The graphene crystallite boundary morphology progresses from irregular/jagged through convex hexagonal to regular hexagonal as the effective C deposition rate decreases. This observation suggests that edge diffusion of C atoms along the crystallite boundaries, in addition to H2 etching, may contribute to shape evolution of the graphene crystallites. These results demonstrate that graphene grown using cold wall CVD follows a nucleation and growth mechanism similar to hot wall CVD. As a consequence, the vast knowledge base relevant to hot wall CVD may be exploited for graphene synthesis by the industrially preferable cold wall method.

KW - cold wall CVD

KW - grapheme

KW - nucleation density

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85013155810&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85013155810&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1088/1361-6528/aa593b

DO - 10.1088/1361-6528/aa593b

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85013155810

VL - 28

JO - Nanotechnology

JF - Nanotechnology

SN - 0957-4484

IS - 10

M1 - 105601

ER -