Multiphoton ionization of xenon at the LCLS free-electron laser

B. Rudek, D. Rolles, A. Rudenko, S. Epp, L. Foucar, B. Erk, R. Hartmann, N. Kimmel, P. Holl, Ch Reich, L. Strüder, H. Hirsemann, K. Ueda, M. Simon, N. Berrah, Ch Bostedt, J. Bozek, S. Schorb, M. Messerschmidt, M. AdolphT. Gorkhover, D. Rupp, T. Möller, J. Schulz, L. Gumprecht, A. Aquila, F. Filsinger, K. U. Kühnel, J. Ullrich

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review


With the first X-ray free-electron laser (FEL), the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), multiphoton ionization has been pushed to a new regime, where atoms and molecules are not just ionized by a series of valence ionizations but "from the inside out". At unprecedented high intensities and short pulse durations in the soft X-ray regime, a series of inner-shell photoionizations followed by cascades of Auger decays was observed to lead to highly charged final states in rare gases such as Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe. Ion time-of-flight and fluorescence spectra were recorded for different FEL pulse energies and pulse lengths and compared to theoretical models to explain the underlying processes that lead to unexpectedly high charge states in Xe.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number022022
JournalJournal of Physics: Conference Series
Issue numberPART 2
StatePublished - 2012
Externally publishedYes
Event27th International Conference on Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions, ICPEAC 2011 - Belfast, United Kingdom
Duration: Jul 27 2011Aug 2 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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