Understanding the trade-offs among ecosystem services (ESs) is important for improving human well-being and sustainability in dryland regions. However, a multi-scale understanding of ES trade-offs that link local ecosystem properties with regional patterns in urbanizing drylands is lacking. We investigated the ES trade-offs in the Hohhot-Baotou-Ordos-Yulin (HBOY) region-a rapidly urbanizing dryland region in China-on three spatial scales: the city, region, and urban agglomeration. We first mapped five key ESs in HBOY in 2010, including crop production, meat production, water yield, soil retention, and carbon sequestration. Next, we analyzed their trade-offs on the three scales by using correlation analysis. We found that trade-offs between water yield and carbon sequestration, as well as water yield and soil retention, were significant in HBOY in 2010. Water yield and carbon sequestration showed significant trade-offs on the urban agglomeration scale and in agricultural region and Ordos. Water yield and soil retention showed significant trade-offs on the urban agglomeration scale and in agricultural region. In addition, the ES trade-offs were scale-dependent in rapidly urbanizing drylands. The trade-offs between pairs of ecosystem services were inconsistent on different scales, this was caused by the spatial heterogeneity of natural conditions and human activities. Our findings might help better understand the ES trade-offs in HBOY and provide a scientific basis for land system architecture and sustainable development in HBOY.
- Ecosystem service trade-offs
- Hohhot-baotou-ordos-yulin (HBOY)
- Multi-scale analysis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics