A total of 1558 base pairs in the 16p13.3 region were investigated in 98 individuals of Mongolian, Northern Arctic and Amerindian affiliation, and the results compared with those obtained in a previous worldwide study of the same genomic region. Fifty-five polymorphic sites could be classified into thirty-five haplotypes from the total data. A median joining network based on the haplotypes revealed two distinct clusters: one with low diversity, with haplotypes found in all five geographic-ethnic categories; while the other, with the most divergent haplotypes, was composed mainly of Africans and a few Amerindians. Almost all neutrality parameters yielded significantly negative values. Demographic simulations with the exclusively Amerindian dataset rejected all scenarios, including a bottleneck beginning more than 12,000 years ago. The demographic scenarios tested considering population growth were similar among the Amerindian and worldwide or Eurasian data sets. The results suggest that Amerindians are a representative sample of Eurasian populations, preserving the signal of demographic growth from the out of Africa exodus and, together with data from uniparental markers, support a scenario of a bottleneck of moderate intensity during the peopling of the New World.
- Molecular variability
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