Nature offers inspiration for developing technologies that integrate the capture, conversion, and storage of solar energy. In this review article, we highlight principles of natural photosynthesis and artificial photosynthesis, drawing comparisons between solar energy transduction in biology and emerging solar-to-fuel technologies. Key features of the biological approach include use of earth-abundant elements and molecular interfaces for driving photoinduced charge separation reactions that power chemical transformations at global scales. For the artificial systems described in this review, emphasis is placed on advancements involving hybrid photocathodes that power fuel-forming reactions using molecular catalysts interfaced with visible-light-absorbing semiconductors.
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