Many Patients With Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis and Increased Serum Levels of Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 Do Not Have Cholangiocarcinoma

Emmanouil Sinakos, Amy K. Saenger, Jill Keach, W. Ray Kim, Keith Lindor

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Abstract

Background & Aims: Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) have an increased incidence of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) is the main serum marker used to diagnose CCA, although increased levels of CA 19-9 are also associated with other hepatic complications. We evaluated the long-term outcomes in patients with PSC and significant increases in levels of CA 19-9. Methods: We analyzed data from all Mayo Clinic patients with PSC and serum levels of CA 19-9 greater than 129 U/mL from 2000-2010 (n = 73). We reviewed patients' records for CCA diagnosis, other malignancies, recurrent bacterial cholangitis, and persistent cholestasis. Results: Thirty-seven percent of patients reviewed had no evidence of CCA after a median follow-up time of 30 months. The initial levels of CA 19-9 from patients without CCA were significantly lower than those from patients with CCA (286 vs 895 U/mL, P < .0001). At the start of the study, patients without CCA were more likely to have cirrhosis, compared with patients with CCA (48% vs 24%, P = .03), and lower levels of bilirubin (2 vs 6.8 mg/dL, P = .003), compared with patients with CCA. No factors known to affect CA 19-9 levels were identified in 33% of patients without CCA; endoscopic treatment and recurrent bacterial cholangitis were associated with levels of CA 19-9 in 26% and 22% of these patients, respectively. Conclusions: Thirty-seven percent of patients with PSC who have serum levels of CA 19-9 greater than 129 U/mL do not have CCA. Additional studies should be performed to determine the outcomes of these patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalClinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Volume9
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2011
Externally publishedYes

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Sclerosing Cholangitis
Cholangiocarcinoma
Carbohydrates
Antigens
Serum
Cholangitis
Cholestasis
Bilirubin

Keywords

  • Bile Duct
  • Biliary Tract Cancer
  • Cancer Diagnostic
  • Liver Disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology
  • Hepatology

Cite this

Many Patients With Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis and Increased Serum Levels of Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 Do Not Have Cholangiocarcinoma. / Sinakos, Emmanouil; Saenger, Amy K.; Keach, Jill; Kim, W. Ray; Lindor, Keith.

In: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Vol. 9, No. 5, 05.2011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background & Aims: Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) have an increased incidence of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) is the main serum marker used to diagnose CCA, although increased levels of CA 19-9 are also associated with other hepatic complications. We evaluated the long-term outcomes in patients with PSC and significant increases in levels of CA 19-9. Methods: We analyzed data from all Mayo Clinic patients with PSC and serum levels of CA 19-9 greater than 129 U/mL from 2000-2010 (n = 73). We reviewed patients' records for CCA diagnosis, other malignancies, recurrent bacterial cholangitis, and persistent cholestasis. Results: Thirty-seven percent of patients reviewed had no evidence of CCA after a median follow-up time of 30 months. The initial levels of CA 19-9 from patients without CCA were significantly lower than those from patients with CCA (286 vs 895 U/mL, P < .0001). At the start of the study, patients without CCA were more likely to have cirrhosis, compared with patients with CCA (48{\%} vs 24{\%}, P = .03), and lower levels of bilirubin (2 vs 6.8 mg/dL, P = .003), compared with patients with CCA. No factors known to affect CA 19-9 levels were identified in 33{\%} of patients without CCA; endoscopic treatment and recurrent bacterial cholangitis were associated with levels of CA 19-9 in 26{\%} and 22{\%} of these patients, respectively. Conclusions: Thirty-seven percent of patients with PSC who have serum levels of CA 19-9 greater than 129 U/mL do not have CCA. Additional studies should be performed to determine the outcomes of these patients.",
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N2 - Background & Aims: Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) have an increased incidence of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) is the main serum marker used to diagnose CCA, although increased levels of CA 19-9 are also associated with other hepatic complications. We evaluated the long-term outcomes in patients with PSC and significant increases in levels of CA 19-9. Methods: We analyzed data from all Mayo Clinic patients with PSC and serum levels of CA 19-9 greater than 129 U/mL from 2000-2010 (n = 73). We reviewed patients' records for CCA diagnosis, other malignancies, recurrent bacterial cholangitis, and persistent cholestasis. Results: Thirty-seven percent of patients reviewed had no evidence of CCA after a median follow-up time of 30 months. The initial levels of CA 19-9 from patients without CCA were significantly lower than those from patients with CCA (286 vs 895 U/mL, P < .0001). At the start of the study, patients without CCA were more likely to have cirrhosis, compared with patients with CCA (48% vs 24%, P = .03), and lower levels of bilirubin (2 vs 6.8 mg/dL, P = .003), compared with patients with CCA. No factors known to affect CA 19-9 levels were identified in 33% of patients without CCA; endoscopic treatment and recurrent bacterial cholangitis were associated with levels of CA 19-9 in 26% and 22% of these patients, respectively. Conclusions: Thirty-seven percent of patients with PSC who have serum levels of CA 19-9 greater than 129 U/mL do not have CCA. Additional studies should be performed to determine the outcomes of these patients.

AB - Background & Aims: Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) have an increased incidence of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) is the main serum marker used to diagnose CCA, although increased levels of CA 19-9 are also associated with other hepatic complications. We evaluated the long-term outcomes in patients with PSC and significant increases in levels of CA 19-9. Methods: We analyzed data from all Mayo Clinic patients with PSC and serum levels of CA 19-9 greater than 129 U/mL from 2000-2010 (n = 73). We reviewed patients' records for CCA diagnosis, other malignancies, recurrent bacterial cholangitis, and persistent cholestasis. Results: Thirty-seven percent of patients reviewed had no evidence of CCA after a median follow-up time of 30 months. The initial levels of CA 19-9 from patients without CCA were significantly lower than those from patients with CCA (286 vs 895 U/mL, P < .0001). At the start of the study, patients without CCA were more likely to have cirrhosis, compared with patients with CCA (48% vs 24%, P = .03), and lower levels of bilirubin (2 vs 6.8 mg/dL, P = .003), compared with patients with CCA. No factors known to affect CA 19-9 levels were identified in 33% of patients without CCA; endoscopic treatment and recurrent bacterial cholangitis were associated with levels of CA 19-9 in 26% and 22% of these patients, respectively. Conclusions: Thirty-seven percent of patients with PSC who have serum levels of CA 19-9 greater than 129 U/mL do not have CCA. Additional studies should be performed to determine the outcomes of these patients.

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KW - Liver Disease

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