Background: Management of orthopaedic infections relies on débridement and local delivery of antimicrobials; however, the distribution and concentration of locally delivered antimicrobials in postdébridement surgical sites is unknown. Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) has been proposed as an imaging surrogate for antimicrobials because it is similar in size and diffusion coefficient to gentamicin. Questions/purposes: Is in vivo distribution of locally delivered Gd-DTPA (1) visible on MRI; (2) reliably visualized by different observers; (3) affected by the anatomic delivery site; and (4) affected by the in vitro release rate from the delivery vehicle? Methods: Twenty-four local delivery depots were imaged in nine rabbits using two anatomic sites (intramedullary canal, quadriceps) with Gd-DTPA in intermediate-porosity polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) or high-porosity PMMA; six of the nine rabbits also had Gd-DTPA delivered in collagen at a third site (hamstring). A total of 45,000 fat-suppressed T1-weighted RARE scans were acquired using a 7-T Bruker Biospec MRI: nine rabbits, 2-mm slices over 10 cm, four TR values, 25 time periods (pre, every 15 minutes for 6 hours). T1 maps were constructed at every time period. Gd-DTPA distribution was observed qualitatively on the T1 maps. Interobserver reliability was determined. Results: Locally delivered Gd-DTPA was visible. Interobserver agreement was excellent. Intramuscular delivery followed intermuscular planes; intramedullary delivery was contained within the canal by bone. Distribution from collagen decreased after 1 hour but from PMMA increased over 6 hours. Conclusions: Locally delivered Gd-DTPA can be visualized on MRI; distribution is affected by anatomical location and delivery vehicle. Clinical Relevance: Contrast-based imaging using locally delivered Gd-DTPA may be useful as an antibiotic surrogate to determine antibiotic distribution in surgical sites.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine