Geographic information (GI) generally consists of facts, data and/or evidence pertaining to events, activities and things located on (or near) the surface of the earth. The process by which humans organize, access and use this information is fundamental to science, industry, and our everyday lives. Whether this involves the use of GI to enhance facility location decisions, efficiently distribute vaccines to vulnerable populations, or to quickly navigate to the local grocery store, GI is essential. The field of Information Science provides a multidisciplinary lens to systematically study GI, its special properties and how it is accessed, processed, and used. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of key issues surrounding GI and introduce a basic framework for understanding the input, storage, management, discovery, accessibility, and usability of GI. This chapter also emphasizes the importance of using Information Science approaches and associated theory for deepening our understanding of geographic knowledge, information, data, and related tools and provides a roadmap for the organization of this book.