Integration of ferroelectric BaTiO3 with Ge: The role of a SrTiO3 buffer layer investigated using aberration-corrected STEM

Hsinwei Wu, Sirong Lu, Toshihiro Aoki, Patrick Ponath, John G. Ekerdt, Alexander A. Demkov, Martha McCartney, David Smith

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5 Scopus citations


The integration of semiconductors with ferroelectrics having a controlled polarization direction is an ongoing and challenging topic of research. In this work, BaTiO3 (BTO)/SrTiO3 (STO) heterostructures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy either directly with STO substrates or by using 2-nm-thick STO buffer layers on Ge(001) substrates. Sharp, chemically abrupt interfaces and c-axis-oriented BTO films for both types of heterostructures were observed using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and elemental mapping. Anti-phase boundaries as well as 〈100〉 misfit dislocations were present in the BTO/STO samples, with the offsets of the dislocation cores varying by distances between 1 and 5 nm away from the BTO/STO interface. Conversely, misfit dislocations were not observed in the BTO/STO/Ge structure although vertical anti-phase boundaries were still common. Overall, the results emphasize the benefits of identifying a suitable buffer layer to ensure the growth of a high quality material having the desired out-of-plane ferroelectric polarization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number252901
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Issue number25
StatePublished - Jun 19 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)


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