Impact of Milk Components on Recovery of Viral RNA from MS2 Bacteriophage

M. Yavarmanesh, Morteza Abbaszadegan, Absar Alum, A. Mortazavi, M. B. Habibi Najafi, M. R. Bassami, M. R. Nassiri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Noroviruses are responsible for approximately 44 % of outbreaks involving dairy products for which causative agents are reported. Recovery of viruses from milk and dairy products is a difficult task. The role of different components of milk in the recovery of viral RNA was evaluated in this study. Four model milk formulations (A-D) were prepared by mixing different combinations of lactose, whey protein, casein, and fat in water. Each model formulation was spiked with five concentrations of bacteriophage MS2. The phenol-guanidine thiocyanate-chloroform protocol was used for extracting viral RNA from the model milk formulations and then extracted RNA was measured by a nanodrop spectrophotometer in ng/μl. The results showed that casein and whey protein had the highest negative impact on RNA yield, especially when the number of MS2 was less than 1. 3 pfu/ml. The highest RNA recovery was obtained from the model milk formulation containing all four components; lactose, whey protein, casein, and fat. The amount of extracted RNA was closely correlated with the dry matter content of each formulation and the spiked concentration of coliphage using response surface modeling (R2:0. 93). It was determined that milk fat is the most effective component in facilitating RNA extraction and the highest RNA yield can be achieved via elimination of whey protein and casein from milk by centrifugation at 40,000×g for 60 min. To achieve the highest viral RNA recovery efficiency by the proposed method, milk fat must be recombined with the supernatant of the centrifuged sample and then homogenized before performing the extraction protocol.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)103-109
Number of pages7
JournalFood and Environmental Virology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1 2013


  • Milk components
  • RNA extraction
  • Raw milk
  • Viruses

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Food Science
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Virology


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