From Hurricane Katrina to the war in Iraq and US border security, ROVs (Remotely Operated Vehicles) are taking a front seat. They can do work that is beyond human capabilities or that puts humans in harm's way. However, the fact that there are no humans in the vehicle is misinterpreted by some as no humans in the system. On the contrary, ROVs are complex systems that require much human involvement. There are many human factors issues ranging from remote control and soda straw displays to spatial disorientation and automation. Further, there are significant mishaps with a large portion attributed to human factors issues. This panel will describe the state-of-the art in human factors of ROVs through some examples of research in the area. In addition panelists will interact with the audience and address questions centering on the challenges, the constraints, and the successes of human factors considerations for ROVs.