HREM, STEM, REM, SEM - and STM

John A. Venables, David Smith, John M. Cowley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Scopus citations

Abstract

Electron microscopy (EM) comes in a variety of forms using electrons with energies ranging from 〈1 keV to 〉1 MeV. Many of these techniques have a long history and are in a state of evolutionary development, which contrasts with the recent revolutionary development of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). This paper reviews some of the strengths and limitations of high resolution (HREM), scanning transmission (STEM), reflection (REM) and scanning (SEM) microscopies. Particular stress is laid on the interpretability of the images obtained, the compatibility with complementary analytical techniques, and applications in surface science. Possible instruments combining STM with forms of EM are considered briefly.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)235-249
Number of pages15
JournalSurface Science
Volume181
Issue number1-2
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 1987

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry

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