High-dose ursodeoxycholic acid increases risk of adverse outcomes in patients with early stage primary sclerosing cholangitis

M. H. Imam, E. Sinakos, A. A. Gossard, K. V. Kowdley, V. A.C. Luketic, M. Edwyn Harrison, T. McCashland, A. S. Befeler, D. Harnois, R. Jorgensen, J. Petz, J. Keach, A. C. Decook, F. Enders, K. D. Lindor

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61 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in a dose of 28-30 mg/kg/day increases the likelihood of clinical deterioration of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) patients. Aim To compare the risk of adverse clinical endpoints in patients with varying disease status. Methods We reviewed records from patients previously enrolled in a study evaluating the effects of high dose (28-30 mg/kg/day) UDCA in PSC. Patients were grouped according to treatment (UDCA vs. placebo) and baseline disease status (histological stage of PSC, total serum bilirubin). Development of clinical endpoints including death, liver transplantation, cirrhosis, oesophageal varices and cholangiocarcinoma was sought. Results A total of 150 patients were included of whom 49 patients developed endpoints. There was an increased development of endpoints among patients using UDCA vs. placebo (14 vs. 4, P = 0.0151) with early histological disease (stage 1-2, n = 88) but not with late stage (stage 3-4, n = 62) disease (17 vs. 14, P = 0.2031). Occurrence of clinical endpoints was also higher in patients receiving UDCA vs. placebo (16 vs. 2, P = 0.0008) with normal bilirubin levels (total bilirubin ≥1.0 mg/dL) but not in patients with elevated bilirubin levels (15 vs. 16, P = 0.6018). Among patients not reaching endpoints 31.7% had normalisation of their alkaline phosphatase levels when compared to 14.3% in patients who reached endpoints (P = 0.073). Conclusion The increased risk of adverse events with UDCA treatment when compared with placebo is only apparent in patients with early histological stage disease or normal total bilirubin.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1185-1192
Number of pages8
JournalAlimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Volume34
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology
  • Gastroenterology
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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