HERSCHEL EXTREME LENSING LINE OBSERVATIONS

[C =ii] VARIATIONS in GALAXIES at REDSHIFTS z =1-3

Sangeeta Malhotra, James E. Rhoads, K. Finkelstein, Huan Yang, Chris Carilli, Francoise Combes, Karine Dassas, Steven Finkelstein, Brenda Frye, Maryvonne Gerin, Pierre Guillard, Nicole Nesvadba, Jane Rigby, Min Su Shin, Marco Spaans, Michael A. Strauss, Casey Papovich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

We observed the [C ii] line in 15 lensed galaxies at redshifts 1 <z <3 using HIFI on the Herschel Space Observatory and detected 14/15 galaxies at 3σ or better. High magnifications enable even modestly luminous galaxies to be detected in [C ii] with Herschel. The [C ii] luminosity in this sample ranges from 8 ×107 L o to 3.7 ×109 L o (after correcting for magnification), confirming that [C ii] is a strong tracer of the ISM at high redshifts. The ratio of the [C ii] line to the total far-infrared (FIR) luminosity serves as a measure of the ratio of gas to dust cooling and thus the efficiency of the grain photoelectric heating process. It varies between 3.3% and 0.09%. We compare the [C ii]/FIR ratio to that of galaxies at z =0 and at high redshifts and find that they follow similar trends. The [C ii]/FIR ratio is lower for galaxies with higher dust temperatures. This is best explained if increased UV intensity leads to higher FIR luminosity and dust temperatures, but gas heating does not rise due to lower photoelectric heating efficiency. The [C ii]/FIR ratio shows weaker correlation with FIR luminosity. At low redshifts highly luminous galaxies tend to have warm dust, so the effects of dust temperature and luminosity are degenerate. Luminous galaxies at high redshifts show a range of dust temperatures, showing that [C ii]/FIR correlates most strongly with dust temperature. The [C ii] to mid-IR ratio for the HELLO sample is similar to the values seen for low-redshift galaxies, indicating that small grains and PAHs dominate the heating in the neutral ISM, although some of the high [CII]/FIR ratios may be due to turbulent heating.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number110
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume835
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 20 2017

Fingerprint

galaxies
dust
heating
luminosity
temperature
magnification
gas
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
PAH
tracers
observatory
tracer
observatories
cooling
trends
gases

Keywords

  • galaxies: high-redshift
  • infrared: ISM
  • ISM: atoms
  • radiation mechanisms: thermal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Malhotra, S., Rhoads, J. E., Finkelstein, K., Yang, H., Carilli, C., Combes, F., ... Papovich, C. (2017). HERSCHEL EXTREME LENSING LINE OBSERVATIONS: [C =ii] VARIATIONS in GALAXIES at REDSHIFTS z =1-3. Astrophysical Journal, 835(1), [110]. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/835/1/110

HERSCHEL EXTREME LENSING LINE OBSERVATIONS : [C =ii] VARIATIONS in GALAXIES at REDSHIFTS z =1-3. / Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Finkelstein, K.; Yang, Huan; Carilli, Chris; Combes, Francoise; Dassas, Karine; Finkelstein, Steven; Frye, Brenda; Gerin, Maryvonne; Guillard, Pierre; Nesvadba, Nicole; Rigby, Jane; Shin, Min Su; Spaans, Marco; Strauss, Michael A.; Papovich, Casey.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 835, No. 1, 110, 20.01.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Malhotra, S, Rhoads, JE, Finkelstein, K, Yang, H, Carilli, C, Combes, F, Dassas, K, Finkelstein, S, Frye, B, Gerin, M, Guillard, P, Nesvadba, N, Rigby, J, Shin, MS, Spaans, M, Strauss, MA & Papovich, C 2017, 'HERSCHEL EXTREME LENSING LINE OBSERVATIONS: [C =ii] VARIATIONS in GALAXIES at REDSHIFTS z =1-3', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 835, no. 1, 110. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/835/1/110
Malhotra, Sangeeta ; Rhoads, James E. ; Finkelstein, K. ; Yang, Huan ; Carilli, Chris ; Combes, Francoise ; Dassas, Karine ; Finkelstein, Steven ; Frye, Brenda ; Gerin, Maryvonne ; Guillard, Pierre ; Nesvadba, Nicole ; Rigby, Jane ; Shin, Min Su ; Spaans, Marco ; Strauss, Michael A. ; Papovich, Casey. / HERSCHEL EXTREME LENSING LINE OBSERVATIONS : [C =ii] VARIATIONS in GALAXIES at REDSHIFTS z =1-3. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2017 ; Vol. 835, No. 1.
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abstract = "We observed the [C ii] line in 15 lensed galaxies at redshifts 1 7 L o to 3.7 ×109 L o (after correcting for magnification), confirming that [C ii] is a strong tracer of the ISM at high redshifts. The ratio of the [C ii] line to the total far-infrared (FIR) luminosity serves as a measure of the ratio of gas to dust cooling and thus the efficiency of the grain photoelectric heating process. It varies between 3.3{\%} and 0.09{\%}. We compare the [C ii]/FIR ratio to that of galaxies at z =0 and at high redshifts and find that they follow similar trends. The [C ii]/FIR ratio is lower for galaxies with higher dust temperatures. This is best explained if increased UV intensity leads to higher FIR luminosity and dust temperatures, but gas heating does not rise due to lower photoelectric heating efficiency. The [C ii]/FIR ratio shows weaker correlation with FIR luminosity. At low redshifts highly luminous galaxies tend to have warm dust, so the effects of dust temperature and luminosity are degenerate. Luminous galaxies at high redshifts show a range of dust temperatures, showing that [C ii]/FIR correlates most strongly with dust temperature. The [C ii] to mid-IR ratio for the HELLO sample is similar to the values seen for low-redshift galaxies, indicating that small grains and PAHs dominate the heating in the neutral ISM, although some of the high [CII]/FIR ratios may be due to turbulent heating.",
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AU - Rhoads, James E.

AU - Finkelstein, K.

AU - Yang, Huan

AU - Carilli, Chris

AU - Combes, Francoise

AU - Dassas, Karine

AU - Finkelstein, Steven

AU - Frye, Brenda

AU - Gerin, Maryvonne

AU - Guillard, Pierre

AU - Nesvadba, Nicole

AU - Rigby, Jane

AU - Shin, Min Su

AU - Spaans, Marco

AU - Strauss, Michael A.

AU - Papovich, Casey

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N2 - We observed the [C ii] line in 15 lensed galaxies at redshifts 1 7 L o to 3.7 ×109 L o (after correcting for magnification), confirming that [C ii] is a strong tracer of the ISM at high redshifts. The ratio of the [C ii] line to the total far-infrared (FIR) luminosity serves as a measure of the ratio of gas to dust cooling and thus the efficiency of the grain photoelectric heating process. It varies between 3.3% and 0.09%. We compare the [C ii]/FIR ratio to that of galaxies at z =0 and at high redshifts and find that they follow similar trends. The [C ii]/FIR ratio is lower for galaxies with higher dust temperatures. This is best explained if increased UV intensity leads to higher FIR luminosity and dust temperatures, but gas heating does not rise due to lower photoelectric heating efficiency. The [C ii]/FIR ratio shows weaker correlation with FIR luminosity. At low redshifts highly luminous galaxies tend to have warm dust, so the effects of dust temperature and luminosity are degenerate. Luminous galaxies at high redshifts show a range of dust temperatures, showing that [C ii]/FIR correlates most strongly with dust temperature. The [C ii] to mid-IR ratio for the HELLO sample is similar to the values seen for low-redshift galaxies, indicating that small grains and PAHs dominate the heating in the neutral ISM, although some of the high [CII]/FIR ratios may be due to turbulent heating.

AB - We observed the [C ii] line in 15 lensed galaxies at redshifts 1 7 L o to 3.7 ×109 L o (after correcting for magnification), confirming that [C ii] is a strong tracer of the ISM at high redshifts. The ratio of the [C ii] line to the total far-infrared (FIR) luminosity serves as a measure of the ratio of gas to dust cooling and thus the efficiency of the grain photoelectric heating process. It varies between 3.3% and 0.09%. We compare the [C ii]/FIR ratio to that of galaxies at z =0 and at high redshifts and find that they follow similar trends. The [C ii]/FIR ratio is lower for galaxies with higher dust temperatures. This is best explained if increased UV intensity leads to higher FIR luminosity and dust temperatures, but gas heating does not rise due to lower photoelectric heating efficiency. The [C ii]/FIR ratio shows weaker correlation with FIR luminosity. At low redshifts highly luminous galaxies tend to have warm dust, so the effects of dust temperature and luminosity are degenerate. Luminous galaxies at high redshifts show a range of dust temperatures, showing that [C ii]/FIR correlates most strongly with dust temperature. The [C ii] to mid-IR ratio for the HELLO sample is similar to the values seen for low-redshift galaxies, indicating that small grains and PAHs dominate the heating in the neutral ISM, although some of the high [CII]/FIR ratios may be due to turbulent heating.

KW - galaxies: high-redshift

KW - infrared: ISM

KW - ISM: atoms

KW - radiation mechanisms: thermal

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