The heat capacities of several TiO2-bearing silicate glasses and liquids containing Cs2O, Rb2O, Na2O, K2O, CaO, MgO, or BaO have been measured to 1100 K using a differential scanning calorimeter and to 1800 K using a Setaram HT-1500 calorimeter in step-scanning mode. The results for liquids of M2O-TiO2-2SiO2 composition (M - Na, K, Cs) are compared to those for liquids of M2O-3SiO2 composition. The presence of TiO2 has a profound influence on the heat capacity of simple three-component silicate liquids over the temperature range 900-1300 K. Specifically, replacement of Si4+ by Ti4+ leads to doubling of the magnitude of the jump in Cp at the glass transion (Tg); this is followed by a progressive decrease in liquid Cp for over 400 K, until Cp eventually becomes constant and similar to that in Ti-free systems. The large heat capacity step at Tg in the TiO2-bearing melts suggests significant configurational rearrangements in the liquid that are not available to TiO2-free silicates. In addition, these "extra" configurational changes apparently saturate as temperature increases, implying the completion of whatever process is responsible for them, or the attainment of a random distribution of structural states. Above 1400 K, however, where the heat capacities of TiO2-bearing and TiO2-free alkali silicate liquids are similar, their configurational entropies differ by ~3.5 J/g.f.w.-K. The larger configurational entropy of the TiO2-bearing alkali silicate liquids relative to the TiO2-free liquids is energetically equivalent to raising the liquid temperature by more than 300 degrees. This result clearly demonstrates the energetic magnitude of the configurational changes apparent in the supercooled liquid region and their impact on the thermodynamic properties of the stable liquid. Consideration of both density measurements on liquids and spectroscopic data on quenched glasses (from the literature) suggests that the anomalous configurational rearrangements may involve the breakdown of alkali and alkaline earth titanate complexes and changes in Ti4+ coordination.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geochemistry and Petrology