Green spaces and heterogeneous social groups in the U.S.

Jeong Joo Ahn, Yushim Kim, Joanna Lucio, Elizabeth A. Corley, Margaretha Bentley

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    13 Scopus citations


    To advance environmental justice in communities, this paper analyzed the way the attributes of green spaces have been defined and evaluated in the literature. We identified and examined 72 peer reviewed journal articles published between 2000 and 2018, which explored green spaces and social groups in the U.S. To report findings systematically, we collected indicators used in the articles and assessed which attributes of green spaces the indicators represent. We found that most articles focused on access more than other attributes (such as ecological benefits, visual and esthetic values, amenities, sociability, and safety). This finding was more salient in the articles that examined green spaces together with race and ethnicity, income class, or age group. The articles that considered green space attributes with gender focused more on evaluating safety, sociability, and amenity. For inclusive planning, design, and management of green spaces and parks, urban planners and park managers must pay attention to diverse attributes to which different social groups are sensitive.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Article number126637
    JournalUrban Forestry and Urban Greening
    StatePublished - Mar 2020


    • Environmental justice
    • Green spaces
    • Park attributes
    • Parks
    • Social groups

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Forestry
    • Ecology
    • Soil Science


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