Gender-typed behaviors, achievement, and adjustment among racially and ethnically diverse boys during early adolescence

Carlos E. Santos, Kathrine Galligan, Erin Pahlke, Richard Fabes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This research examined the relations between adherence to gender-typed behaviors in boys' friendships, achievement, and self-esteem. Participants were racially and ethnically diverse adolescent boys in grade 8 (Mage = 13.05; range = 12-14). The study was completed at a public junior high school that offered both single- and mixed-gender classes. Data were collected in 2 waves, the first wave in fall of 2010 and the second in spring of 2011. At each wave, participants completed assessments of gender concepts and self-esteem. Standardized tests scores from the end of the previous academic year and the end of the year of the study were utilized. Results revealed that the boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors in their friendships was negatively associated with math standardized test scores and self-esteem from Time I to Time II. Indirect effects analyses revealed a relation between boys' adherence to emotional stoicism behaviors in friendships and math achievement and self-esteem via boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors. Implications of these findings and the links between masculinity, boys' friendships, performance in school, and psychological adjustment are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)252-264
Number of pages13
JournalAmerican Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Volume83
Issue number2 PART 3
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2013

Fingerprint

Social Adjustment
Self Concept
Masculinity
Boys
Adolescence
Adherence
Self-esteem
Friendship
Research
Waves

Keywords

  • Adolescent boys
  • Boys' friendships
  • Emotional stoicism
  • Gender development
  • Gender gap in achievement
  • Gender-typed behaviors
  • Masculinity ideology
  • Math achievement scores
  • Physical toughness
  • Self-esteem
  • Single-sex classes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Psychology (miscellaneous)
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

Cite this

Gender-typed behaviors, achievement, and adjustment among racially and ethnically diverse boys during early adolescence. / Santos, Carlos E.; Galligan, Kathrine; Pahlke, Erin; Fabes, Richard.

In: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, Vol. 83, No. 2 PART 3, 04.2013, p. 252-264.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{8bf28a4fdeb843fcb6bb54f91eea5827,
title = "Gender-typed behaviors, achievement, and adjustment among racially and ethnically diverse boys during early adolescence",
abstract = "This research examined the relations between adherence to gender-typed behaviors in boys' friendships, achievement, and self-esteem. Participants were racially and ethnically diverse adolescent boys in grade 8 (Mage = 13.05; range = 12-14). The study was completed at a public junior high school that offered both single- and mixed-gender classes. Data were collected in 2 waves, the first wave in fall of 2010 and the second in spring of 2011. At each wave, participants completed assessments of gender concepts and self-esteem. Standardized tests scores from the end of the previous academic year and the end of the year of the study were utilized. Results revealed that the boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors in their friendships was negatively associated with math standardized test scores and self-esteem from Time I to Time II. Indirect effects analyses revealed a relation between boys' adherence to emotional stoicism behaviors in friendships and math achievement and self-esteem via boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors. Implications of these findings and the links between masculinity, boys' friendships, performance in school, and psychological adjustment are discussed.",
keywords = "Adolescent boys, Boys' friendships, Emotional stoicism, Gender development, Gender gap in achievement, Gender-typed behaviors, Masculinity ideology, Math achievement scores, Physical toughness, Self-esteem, Single-sex classes",
author = "Santos, {Carlos E.} and Kathrine Galligan and Erin Pahlke and Richard Fabes",
year = "2013",
month = "4",
doi = "10.1111/ajop.12036",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "83",
pages = "252--264",
journal = "American Journal of Orthopsychiatry",
issn = "0002-9432",
publisher = "American Orthopsychiatric Association Inc.",
number = "2 PART 3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Gender-typed behaviors, achievement, and adjustment among racially and ethnically diverse boys during early adolescence

AU - Santos, Carlos E.

AU - Galligan, Kathrine

AU - Pahlke, Erin

AU - Fabes, Richard

PY - 2013/4

Y1 - 2013/4

N2 - This research examined the relations between adherence to gender-typed behaviors in boys' friendships, achievement, and self-esteem. Participants were racially and ethnically diverse adolescent boys in grade 8 (Mage = 13.05; range = 12-14). The study was completed at a public junior high school that offered both single- and mixed-gender classes. Data were collected in 2 waves, the first wave in fall of 2010 and the second in spring of 2011. At each wave, participants completed assessments of gender concepts and self-esteem. Standardized tests scores from the end of the previous academic year and the end of the year of the study were utilized. Results revealed that the boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors in their friendships was negatively associated with math standardized test scores and self-esteem from Time I to Time II. Indirect effects analyses revealed a relation between boys' adherence to emotional stoicism behaviors in friendships and math achievement and self-esteem via boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors. Implications of these findings and the links between masculinity, boys' friendships, performance in school, and psychological adjustment are discussed.

AB - This research examined the relations between adherence to gender-typed behaviors in boys' friendships, achievement, and self-esteem. Participants were racially and ethnically diverse adolescent boys in grade 8 (Mage = 13.05; range = 12-14). The study was completed at a public junior high school that offered both single- and mixed-gender classes. Data were collected in 2 waves, the first wave in fall of 2010 and the second in spring of 2011. At each wave, participants completed assessments of gender concepts and self-esteem. Standardized tests scores from the end of the previous academic year and the end of the year of the study were utilized. Results revealed that the boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors in their friendships was negatively associated with math standardized test scores and self-esteem from Time I to Time II. Indirect effects analyses revealed a relation between boys' adherence to emotional stoicism behaviors in friendships and math achievement and self-esteem via boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors. Implications of these findings and the links between masculinity, boys' friendships, performance in school, and psychological adjustment are discussed.

KW - Adolescent boys

KW - Boys' friendships

KW - Emotional stoicism

KW - Gender development

KW - Gender gap in achievement

KW - Gender-typed behaviors

KW - Masculinity ideology

KW - Math achievement scores

KW - Physical toughness

KW - Self-esteem

KW - Single-sex classes

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84880980851&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84880980851&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/ajop.12036

DO - 10.1111/ajop.12036

M3 - Article

C2 - 23889017

AN - SCOPUS:84880980851

VL - 83

SP - 252

EP - 264

JO - American Journal of Orthopsychiatry

JF - American Journal of Orthopsychiatry

SN - 0002-9432

IS - 2 PART 3

ER -