EXTERNAL PHOTOEVAPORATION of the SOLAR NEBULA. II. EFFECTS on DISK STRUCTURE and EVOLUTION with NON-UNIFORM TURBULENT VISCOSITY DUE to the MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY

A. Kalyaan, Steven Desch, N. Monga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Scopus citations

Abstract

The structure and evolution of protoplanetary disks, especially the radial flows of gas through them, are sensitive to a number of factors. One that has been considered only occasionally in the literature is external photoevaporation by far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation from nearby, massive stars, despite the fact that nearly half of disks will experience photoevaporation. Another effect apparently not considered in the literature is a spatially and temporally varying value of α in the disk (where the turbulent viscosity ν is α times the sound speed C times the disk scale height H). Here we use the formulation of Bai & Stone to relate α to the ionization fraction in the disk, assuming turbulent transport of angular momentum is due to the magnetorotational instability. We calculate the ionization fraction of the disk gas under various assumptions about ionization sources and dust grain properties. Disk evolution is most sensitive to the surface area of dust. We find that typically α ≲ 10-5 in the inner disk (<2 AU), rising to ∼10-1 beyond 20 AU. This drastically alters the structure of the disk and the flow of mass through it: while the outer disk rapidly viscously spreads, the inner disk hardly evolves; this leads to a steep surface density profile ( with ≈ 2-5 in the 5-30 AU region) that is made steeper by external photoevaporation. We also find that the combination of variable α and external photoevaporation eventually causes gas as close as 3 AU, previously accreting inward, to be drawn outward to the photoevaporated outer edge of the disk. These effects have drastic consequences for planet formation and volatile transport in protoplanetary disks.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number112
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume815
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 20 2015

Keywords

  • accretion, accretion disks
  • instabilities
  • planets and satellites: formation
  • protoplanetary disks
  • stars: formation
  • turbulence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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