Exposure to intimate partner violence and internalizing symptoms: The moderating effects of positive relationships with pets and animal cruelty exposure

Roxanne D. Hawkins, Shelby Elaine McDonald, Kelly O'Connor, Angela Matijczak, Frank R. Ascione, James Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: It is estimated that more than half of children living in households where intimate partner violence (IPV) occurs are also exposed to animal cruelty (AC). Although prior research links bonds with pets with higher levels of socioemotional competence among school-age children, exposure to AC may negate the protective effects of pet ownership and/or exacerbate the potentially deleterious effect of IPV on children's mental health. Objective: The current study evaluates whether and to what extent the associations between exposure to IPV and several indicators of children's mental health vary as a function of children's positive engagement with pets and exposure to AC. Participants and Setting: Participants included 204 children (aged 7–12 years; 47% female; 57% Latinx) and their maternal caregiver who were recruited from domestic violence agencies in a western U.S. state. Method: Multiple moderation analysis evaluated whether the association between children's exposure to IPV and internalizing and posttraumatic stress symptoms vary as a function of children's positive engagement with pets and exposure to AC. Results: Analyses revealed several moderation effects for positive engagement with pets (e.g., internalizing problems: [b = −.15, t(195) = −2.66, p = .008]; posttraumatic stress symptoms: [b = −.13, t(195) = −2.24, p = .026]), whereas exposure to AC only moderated the association between IPV and anxious/depressed symptoms (b = .32, t(195) = −2.41, p = .017). Conclusions: These findings highlight the potential protective effects of positive engagement with pets and importance of screening for exposure to AC when engaging in trauma-informed work with children exposed to IPV.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number104166
JournalChild Abuse and Neglect
Volume98
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2019

Fingerprint

Animal Welfare
Pets
Mental Health
Domestic Violence
Ownership
Intimate Partner Violence
Exposure to Violence
Mental Competency
Caregivers
Mothers
Wounds and Injuries
Research

Keywords

  • Animal abuse
  • Child psychopathology
  • Childhood adversity
  • Domestic violence
  • Trauma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Exposure to intimate partner violence and internalizing symptoms : The moderating effects of positive relationships with pets and animal cruelty exposure. / Hawkins, Roxanne D.; McDonald, Shelby Elaine; O'Connor, Kelly; Matijczak, Angela; Ascione, Frank R.; Williams, James.

In: Child Abuse and Neglect, Vol. 98, 104166, 01.12.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hawkins, Roxanne D. ; McDonald, Shelby Elaine ; O'Connor, Kelly ; Matijczak, Angela ; Ascione, Frank R. ; Williams, James. / Exposure to intimate partner violence and internalizing symptoms : The moderating effects of positive relationships with pets and animal cruelty exposure. In: Child Abuse and Neglect. 2019 ; Vol. 98.
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title = "Exposure to intimate partner violence and internalizing symptoms: The moderating effects of positive relationships with pets and animal cruelty exposure",
abstract = "Background: It is estimated that more than half of children living in households where intimate partner violence (IPV) occurs are also exposed to animal cruelty (AC). Although prior research links bonds with pets with higher levels of socioemotional competence among school-age children, exposure to AC may negate the protective effects of pet ownership and/or exacerbate the potentially deleterious effect of IPV on children's mental health. Objective: The current study evaluates whether and to what extent the associations between exposure to IPV and several indicators of children's mental health vary as a function of children's positive engagement with pets and exposure to AC. Participants and Setting: Participants included 204 children (aged 7–12 years; 47{\%} female; 57{\%} Latinx) and their maternal caregiver who were recruited from domestic violence agencies in a western U.S. state. Method: Multiple moderation analysis evaluated whether the association between children's exposure to IPV and internalizing and posttraumatic stress symptoms vary as a function of children's positive engagement with pets and exposure to AC. Results: Analyses revealed several moderation effects for positive engagement with pets (e.g., internalizing problems: [b = −.15, t(195) = −2.66, p = .008]; posttraumatic stress symptoms: [b = −.13, t(195) = −2.24, p = .026]), whereas exposure to AC only moderated the association between IPV and anxious/depressed symptoms (b = .32, t(195) = −2.41, p = .017). Conclusions: These findings highlight the potential protective effects of positive engagement with pets and importance of screening for exposure to AC when engaging in trauma-informed work with children exposed to IPV.",
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