Evidence that the directly imaged planet HD 131399 Ab Is a Background Star

Eric L. Nielsen, Robert J.De Rosa, Julien Rameau, Jason J. Wang, Thomas M. Esposito, Maxwell A. Millar-Blanchaer, Christian Marois, Arthur Vigan, S. Mark Ammons, Etienne Artigau, Vanessa P. Bailey, Sarah Blunt, Joanna Bulger, Jeffrey Chilcote, Tara Cotten, René Doyon, Gaspard Duchêne, Daniel Fabrycky, Michael P. Fitzgerald, Katherine B. Follette & 38 others Benjamin L. Gerard, Stephen J. Goodsell, James R. Graham, Alexandra Z. Greenbaum, Pascale Hibon, Sasha Hinkley, Li Wei Hung, Patrick Ingraham, Rebecca Jensen-Clem, Paul Kalas, Quinn Konopacky, James E. Larkin, Bruce MacIntosh, Jérôme Maire, Franck Marchis, Stanimir Metchev, Katie M. Morzinski, Ruth A. Murray-Clay, Rebecca Oppenheimer, David Palmer, Jennifer Patience, Marshall Perrin, Lisa Poyneer, Laurent Pueyo, Roman R. Rafikov, Abhijith Rajan, Fredrik T. Rantakyrö, Jean Baptiste Ruffio, Dmitry Savransky, Adam C. Schneider, Anand Sivaramakrishnan, Inseok Song, Remi Soummer, Sandrine Thomas, J. Kent Wallace, Kimberly Ward-Duong, Sloane Wiktorowicz, Schuyler Wolff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We present evidence that the recently discovered, directly imaged planet HD 131399 Ab is a background star with nonzero proper motion. From new JHK1L′ photometry and spectroscopy obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager, VLT/SPHERE, and Keck/NIRC2, and a reanalysis of the discovery data obtained with VLT/SPHERE, we derive colors, spectra, and astrometry for HD 131399 Ab. The broader wavelength coverage and higher data quality allow us to reinvestigate its status. Its near-infrared spectral energy distribution excludes spectral types later than L0 and is consistent with a K or M dwarf, which are the most likely candidates for a background object in this direction at the apparent magnitude observed. If it were a physically associated object, the projected velocity of HD 131399 Ab would exceed escape velocity given the mass and distance to HD 131399 A. We show that HD 131399 Ab is also not following the expected track for a stationary background star at infinite distance. Solving for the proper motion and parallax required to explain the relative motion of HD 131399 Ab, we find a proper motion of 12.3 mas yr-1. When compared to predicted background objects drawn from a galactic model, we find this proper motion to be high but consistent with the top 4% fastest-moving background stars. From our analysis, we conclude that HD 131399 Ab is a background K or M dwarf.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number218
JournalAstronomical Journal
Volume154
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2017

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proper motion
planets
planet
stars
data quality
near infrared
spectroscopy
wavelength
escape velocity
astrometry
parallax
spectral energy distribution
photometry
energy
color
wavelengths
distribution
analysis

Keywords

  • adaptive optics - planets and satellites
  • astrometry - instrumentation
  • detection - stars
  • image processing - techniques
  • individual (HD 131399) - techniques
  • spectroscopic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Nielsen, E. L., Rosa, R. J. D., Rameau, J., Wang, J. J., Esposito, T. M., Millar-Blanchaer, M. A., ... Wolff, S. (2017). Evidence that the directly imaged planet HD 131399 Ab Is a Background Star. Astronomical Journal, 154(6), [218]. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/aa8a69

Evidence that the directly imaged planet HD 131399 Ab Is a Background Star. / Nielsen, Eric L.; Rosa, Robert J.De; Rameau, Julien; Wang, Jason J.; Esposito, Thomas M.; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.; Marois, Christian; Vigan, Arthur; Ammons, S. Mark; Artigau, Etienne; Bailey, Vanessa P.; Blunt, Sarah; Bulger, Joanna; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Cotten, Tara; Doyon, René; Duchêne, Gaspard; Fabrycky, Daniel; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Follette, Katherine B.; Gerard, Benjamin L.; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Graham, James R.; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Hibon, Pascale; Hinkley, Sasha; Hung, Li Wei; Ingraham, Patrick; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca; Kalas, Paul; Konopacky, Quinn; Larkin, James E.; MacIntosh, Bruce; Maire, Jérôme; Marchis, Franck; Metchev, Stanimir; Morzinski, Katie M.; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Palmer, David; Patience, Jennifer; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Pueyo, Laurent; Rafikov, Roman R.; Rajan, Abhijith; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Ruffio, Jean Baptiste; Savransky, Dmitry; Schneider, Adam C.; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Soummer, Remi; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Wiktorowicz, Sloane; Wolff, Schuyler.

In: Astronomical Journal, Vol. 154, No. 6, 218, 01.12.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nielsen, EL, Rosa, RJD, Rameau, J, Wang, JJ, Esposito, TM, Millar-Blanchaer, MA, Marois, C, Vigan, A, Ammons, SM, Artigau, E, Bailey, VP, Blunt, S, Bulger, J, Chilcote, J, Cotten, T, Doyon, R, Duchêne, G, Fabrycky, D, Fitzgerald, MP, Follette, KB, Gerard, BL, Goodsell, SJ, Graham, JR, Greenbaum, AZ, Hibon, P, Hinkley, S, Hung, LW, Ingraham, P, Jensen-Clem, R, Kalas, P, Konopacky, Q, Larkin, JE, MacIntosh, B, Maire, J, Marchis, F, Metchev, S, Morzinski, KM, Murray-Clay, RA, Oppenheimer, R, Palmer, D, Patience, J, Perrin, M, Poyneer, L, Pueyo, L, Rafikov, RR, Rajan, A, Rantakyrö, FT, Ruffio, JB, Savransky, D, Schneider, AC, Sivaramakrishnan, A, Song, I, Soummer, R, Thomas, S, Wallace, JK, Ward-Duong, K, Wiktorowicz, S & Wolff, S 2017, 'Evidence that the directly imaged planet HD 131399 Ab Is a Background Star', Astronomical Journal, vol. 154, no. 6, 218. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/aa8a69
Nielsen EL, Rosa RJD, Rameau J, Wang JJ, Esposito TM, Millar-Blanchaer MA et al. Evidence that the directly imaged planet HD 131399 Ab Is a Background Star. Astronomical Journal. 2017 Dec 1;154(6). 218. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/aa8a69
Nielsen, Eric L. ; Rosa, Robert J.De ; Rameau, Julien ; Wang, Jason J. ; Esposito, Thomas M. ; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A. ; Marois, Christian ; Vigan, Arthur ; Ammons, S. Mark ; Artigau, Etienne ; Bailey, Vanessa P. ; Blunt, Sarah ; Bulger, Joanna ; Chilcote, Jeffrey ; Cotten, Tara ; Doyon, René ; Duchêne, Gaspard ; Fabrycky, Daniel ; Fitzgerald, Michael P. ; Follette, Katherine B. ; Gerard, Benjamin L. ; Goodsell, Stephen J. ; Graham, James R. ; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z. ; Hibon, Pascale ; Hinkley, Sasha ; Hung, Li Wei ; Ingraham, Patrick ; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca ; Kalas, Paul ; Konopacky, Quinn ; Larkin, James E. ; MacIntosh, Bruce ; Maire, Jérôme ; Marchis, Franck ; Metchev, Stanimir ; Morzinski, Katie M. ; Murray-Clay, Ruth A. ; Oppenheimer, Rebecca ; Palmer, David ; Patience, Jennifer ; Perrin, Marshall ; Poyneer, Lisa ; Pueyo, Laurent ; Rafikov, Roman R. ; Rajan, Abhijith ; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T. ; Ruffio, Jean Baptiste ; Savransky, Dmitry ; Schneider, Adam C. ; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand ; Song, Inseok ; Soummer, Remi ; Thomas, Sandrine ; Wallace, J. Kent ; Ward-Duong, Kimberly ; Wiktorowicz, Sloane ; Wolff, Schuyler. / Evidence that the directly imaged planet HD 131399 Ab Is a Background Star. In: Astronomical Journal. 2017 ; Vol. 154, No. 6.
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abstract = "We present evidence that the recently discovered, directly imaged planet HD 131399 Ab is a background star with nonzero proper motion. From new JHK1L′ photometry and spectroscopy obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager, VLT/SPHERE, and Keck/NIRC2, and a reanalysis of the discovery data obtained with VLT/SPHERE, we derive colors, spectra, and astrometry for HD 131399 Ab. The broader wavelength coverage and higher data quality allow us to reinvestigate its status. Its near-infrared spectral energy distribution excludes spectral types later than L0 and is consistent with a K or M dwarf, which are the most likely candidates for a background object in this direction at the apparent magnitude observed. If it were a physically associated object, the projected velocity of HD 131399 Ab would exceed escape velocity given the mass and distance to HD 131399 A. We show that HD 131399 Ab is also not following the expected track for a stationary background star at infinite distance. Solving for the proper motion and parallax required to explain the relative motion of HD 131399 Ab, we find a proper motion of 12.3 mas yr-1. When compared to predicted background objects drawn from a galactic model, we find this proper motion to be high but consistent with the top 4{\%} fastest-moving background stars. From our analysis, we conclude that HD 131399 Ab is a background K or M dwarf.",
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AU - Nielsen, Eric L.

AU - Rosa, Robert J.De

AU - Rameau, Julien

AU - Wang, Jason J.

AU - Esposito, Thomas M.

AU - Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.

AU - Marois, Christian

AU - Vigan, Arthur

AU - Ammons, S. Mark

AU - Artigau, Etienne

AU - Bailey, Vanessa P.

AU - Blunt, Sarah

AU - Bulger, Joanna

AU - Chilcote, Jeffrey

AU - Cotten, Tara

AU - Doyon, René

AU - Duchêne, Gaspard

AU - Fabrycky, Daniel

AU - Fitzgerald, Michael P.

AU - Follette, Katherine B.

AU - Gerard, Benjamin L.

AU - Goodsell, Stephen J.

AU - Graham, James R.

AU - Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.

AU - Hibon, Pascale

AU - Hinkley, Sasha

AU - Hung, Li Wei

AU - Ingraham, Patrick

AU - Jensen-Clem, Rebecca

AU - Kalas, Paul

AU - Konopacky, Quinn

AU - Larkin, James E.

AU - MacIntosh, Bruce

AU - Maire, Jérôme

AU - Marchis, Franck

AU - Metchev, Stanimir

AU - Morzinski, Katie M.

AU - Murray-Clay, Ruth A.

AU - Oppenheimer, Rebecca

AU - Palmer, David

AU - Patience, Jennifer

AU - Perrin, Marshall

AU - Poyneer, Lisa

AU - Pueyo, Laurent

AU - Rafikov, Roman R.

AU - Rajan, Abhijith

AU - Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.

AU - Ruffio, Jean Baptiste

AU - Savransky, Dmitry

AU - Schneider, Adam C.

AU - Sivaramakrishnan, Anand

AU - Song, Inseok

AU - Soummer, Remi

AU - Thomas, Sandrine

AU - Wallace, J. Kent

AU - Ward-Duong, Kimberly

AU - Wiktorowicz, Sloane

AU - Wolff, Schuyler

PY - 2017/12/1

Y1 - 2017/12/1

N2 - We present evidence that the recently discovered, directly imaged planet HD 131399 Ab is a background star with nonzero proper motion. From new JHK1L′ photometry and spectroscopy obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager, VLT/SPHERE, and Keck/NIRC2, and a reanalysis of the discovery data obtained with VLT/SPHERE, we derive colors, spectra, and astrometry for HD 131399 Ab. The broader wavelength coverage and higher data quality allow us to reinvestigate its status. Its near-infrared spectral energy distribution excludes spectral types later than L0 and is consistent with a K or M dwarf, which are the most likely candidates for a background object in this direction at the apparent magnitude observed. If it were a physically associated object, the projected velocity of HD 131399 Ab would exceed escape velocity given the mass and distance to HD 131399 A. We show that HD 131399 Ab is also not following the expected track for a stationary background star at infinite distance. Solving for the proper motion and parallax required to explain the relative motion of HD 131399 Ab, we find a proper motion of 12.3 mas yr-1. When compared to predicted background objects drawn from a galactic model, we find this proper motion to be high but consistent with the top 4% fastest-moving background stars. From our analysis, we conclude that HD 131399 Ab is a background K or M dwarf.

AB - We present evidence that the recently discovered, directly imaged planet HD 131399 Ab is a background star with nonzero proper motion. From new JHK1L′ photometry and spectroscopy obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager, VLT/SPHERE, and Keck/NIRC2, and a reanalysis of the discovery data obtained with VLT/SPHERE, we derive colors, spectra, and astrometry for HD 131399 Ab. The broader wavelength coverage and higher data quality allow us to reinvestigate its status. Its near-infrared spectral energy distribution excludes spectral types later than L0 and is consistent with a K or M dwarf, which are the most likely candidates for a background object in this direction at the apparent magnitude observed. If it were a physically associated object, the projected velocity of HD 131399 Ab would exceed escape velocity given the mass and distance to HD 131399 A. We show that HD 131399 Ab is also not following the expected track for a stationary background star at infinite distance. Solving for the proper motion and parallax required to explain the relative motion of HD 131399 Ab, we find a proper motion of 12.3 mas yr-1. When compared to predicted background objects drawn from a galactic model, we find this proper motion to be high but consistent with the top 4% fastest-moving background stars. From our analysis, we conclude that HD 131399 Ab is a background K or M dwarf.

KW - adaptive optics - planets and satellites

KW - astrometry - instrumentation

KW - detection - stars

KW - image processing - techniques

KW - individual (HD 131399) - techniques

KW - spectroscopic

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