This paper examines and compares different aluminum reduction technologies found in the literature as alternatives to the current Hall-Heroult technology. The main inefficiencies in the current Hall-Heroult technology were identified and the advantages of the different proposed technologies over the Hall-Heroult technology were determined. The comparison between the different technologies, namely Hall-Heroult, wetted drained cathode, inert anode, and carbothermic, was based on energy and material requirements, and environmental impact. In order to combine all of the evaluation criteria into one numerical value, the exergy concept was utilized as a decision tool. The results emphasize that in order to analyze any conversion system, the exergy of energy, material, environmental impact, and their associated chain production should be taken into consideration.
- Inert anode
- Wetted drained cathode
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geography, Planning and Development
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law