Electroplated Al as the front electrode in crystalline-Si solar cells

Wen Cheng Sun, Haifeng Zhang, Laidong Wang, Clarence J. Tracy, Meng Tao

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This paper reports aluminum (Al) electroplating as the metallization technique for the front finger electrode on n-type silicon (Si) in crystalline-Si solar cells. The development of the Al electroplating process is motivated by the limited reserves of silver (Ag) on this planet and the industry-wide push to reduce Ag usage for cost control. The new metallization process consists of: 1) patterning the silicon nitride (SiNx) layer for front electrode; 2) depositing a nickel (Ni) seed layer into the opening; 3) electroplating self-aligned Al onto the Ni seed layer and 4) annealing the Al/Ni electrode in air at ∼200°C. This temperature is far below the typical firing temperatures for commercial Al pastes. The new metallization process has been integrated into commercial p-type monocrystalline Si solar cells from Hareon Solar. An all-Al Si solar cell, with an electroplated Al front electrode and a screen-printed Al back electrode, has been demonstrated. The cell has a size of 2.54×2.54 cm2, with efficiencies approaching 15% demonstrated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication2015 IEEE 42nd Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC 2015
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
ISBN (Print)9781479979448
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 14 2015
Event42nd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC 2015 - New Orleans, United States
Duration: Jun 14 2015Jun 19 2015

Other

Other42nd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC 2015
CountryUnited States
CityNew Orleans
Period6/14/156/19/15

Fingerprint

Silicon solar cells
Aluminum
Crystalline materials
Electrodes
Electroplating
Metallizing
Nickel
Seed
Monocrystalline silicon
Silicon
Planets
Ointments
Silicon nitride
Silver
Annealing
Temperature
Air

Keywords

  • aluminum
  • electroplating
  • metallization
  • silicon solar cell
  • silver

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials

Cite this

Sun, W. C., Zhang, H., Wang, L., Tracy, C. J., & Tao, M. (2015). Electroplated Al as the front electrode in crystalline-Si solar cells. In 2015 IEEE 42nd Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC 2015 [7355874] Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.. https://doi.org/10.1109/PVSC.2015.7355874

Electroplated Al as the front electrode in crystalline-Si solar cells. / Sun, Wen Cheng; Zhang, Haifeng; Wang, Laidong; Tracy, Clarence J.; Tao, Meng.

2015 IEEE 42nd Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC 2015. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2015. 7355874.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Sun, WC, Zhang, H, Wang, L, Tracy, CJ & Tao, M 2015, Electroplated Al as the front electrode in crystalline-Si solar cells. in 2015 IEEE 42nd Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC 2015., 7355874, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 42nd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC 2015, New Orleans, United States, 6/14/15. https://doi.org/10.1109/PVSC.2015.7355874
Sun WC, Zhang H, Wang L, Tracy CJ, Tao M. Electroplated Al as the front electrode in crystalline-Si solar cells. In 2015 IEEE 42nd Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC 2015. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. 2015. 7355874 https://doi.org/10.1109/PVSC.2015.7355874
Sun, Wen Cheng ; Zhang, Haifeng ; Wang, Laidong ; Tracy, Clarence J. ; Tao, Meng. / Electroplated Al as the front electrode in crystalline-Si solar cells. 2015 IEEE 42nd Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC 2015. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2015.
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