Much is known about environmental influences on metabolism and systemic insulin levels. Less is known about how those influences are translated into molecular mechanisms regulating insulin production. To better understand the molecular mechanisms we generated marked cells homozygous for a null mutation in the Drosophila TGF-β signal transducer dSmad2 in unmated adult females. We then conducted side-by-side single cell comparisons of the pixel intensity of two Drosophila insulin-like peptides (dILP2 and dILP5) in dSmad2mutant and wild type insulin producing cells (IPCs). The analysis revealed multiple features of dSmad2 regulation of dILPs. In addition, we discovered that dILP5 is expressed and regulated by dSmad2 in circadian pacemaker cells (CPCs). Outcomes of regulation by dSmad2 differ between dILP2 and dILP5 within IPCs and differ for dILP5 between IPCs and CPCs. Modes of dSmad2 regulation differ between dILP2 and dILP5. dSmad2 antagonism of dILP2 in IPCs is robust but dSmad2 regulation of dILP5 in IPCs and CPCs toggles between antagonism and agonism depending upon dSmad2 dosage. Companion studies of dILP2 and dILP5 in the IPCs of dCORL mutant (fussel in Flybase and SKOR in mammals) and upd2 mutant unmated adult females showed no significant difference from wild type. Taken together, the data suggest that dSmad2 regulates dILP2 and dILP5 via distinct mechanisms in IPCs (antagonist) and CPCs (agonist) and in unmated adult females that dSmad2 acts independently of dCORL and upd2.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Issue number||1 January|
|State||Published - Jan 2023|
ASJC Scopus subject areas