Dimensionally stable anode based sensor for urea determination via linear sweep voltammetry

Maria de Lourdes S. Vasconcellos, Luiz Ricardo G. Silva, Chung Seop Lee, Ana Sofia Fajardo, Sergi Garcia-Segura, Josimar Ribeiro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Urea is an added value chemical with wide applications in the industry and agriculture. The release of urea waste to the environment affects ecosystem health despite its low toxicity. Online monitoring of urea for industrial applications and environmental health is an unaddressed challenge. Electroanalytical techniques can be a smart integrated solution for online monitoring if sensors can overcome the major barrier associated with long-term stability. Mixed metal oxides have shown excellent stability in environmental conditions with long lasting operational lives. However, these materials have been barely explored for sensing applications. This work presents a proof of concept that demonstrates the applicability of an indirect electroanalytical quantification method of urea. The use of Ti/RuO2-TiO2-SnO2 dimensional stable anode (DSA®) can provide accurate and sensitive quantification of urea in aqueous samples exploiting the excellent catalytic properties of DSA® on the electrogeneration of active chlorine species. The cathodic reduction of accumulated HClO/ClO from anodic electrogeneration presented a direct relationship with urea concentration. This novel method can allow urea quantification with a competitive LOD of 1.83 × 10−6 mol L−1 within a linear range of 6.66 × 10−6 to 3.33 × 10−4 mol L−1 of urea concentration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number3450
JournalSensors
Volume21
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2 2021

Keywords

  • Chlorine reduction
  • Electroanalysis
  • Nitrogenated species
  • Online monitoring

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Information Systems
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biochemistry
  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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