We used observed parenting behaviors, along with genetic variants and haplotypes of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4), as predictors of children's ego-resiliency during early childhood (N= 153). The quality of mothers' parenting was observed at 18 months of age, and mothers' reports of ego-resiliency were collected at six time points from 18 to 84 months. Genetic data were collected at 72 months. Observed parenting was positively associated with initial levels of children's ego-resiliency. Furthermore, although individual genetic variants of the serotonin transporter gene (LPR, STin2) were not associated with ego-resiliency, the S10 haplotype (that combines information from these two variants) was negatively associated with initial levels of ego-resiliency. Both parenting and serotonin genetic variation uniquely predicted children's ego-resiliency, suggesting an additive effect of genetic and parental factors.
- Serotonin transporter gene
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Developmental and Educational Psychology
- Sociology and Political Science
- Social Sciences (miscellaneous)