Bullying victimization is a common experience for adolescents. Past research documents that victims have more negative mental health outcomes, social relationships, and school experiences compared to their non-victimized classmates. However, this research is largely cross-sectional, often lacks youth living in rural areas, and does not explore the longitudinal burden that victimization places on adolescent development. Further, few researchers have examined bullying victimization using a dose-response model; the dose model posits that more exposure to a stimuli presents a greater impact. The current study examines how cumulative experiences of traditional and cyber victimization over a three year period are associated with the mental health, social relationships, and school experiences of 2246 middle and high school students in two low income, rural counties in the south. Regression analysis confirms that increased victimization was associated with more negative mental health functioning, social relationships, and school experiences. Implications are discussed.
- Native American
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Developmental and Educational Psychology
- Sociology and Political Science