This study examined risk and protective factors among a sample of 157 youths between grades 6 and 8 who resided in three urban public housing developments. The relationship between identified patterns of risk and protection and educational and behavioral outcomes was assessed. Indicators of risk and protection were based on an ecological and multisystems perspective and included measures of individual characteristics, interpersonal and social traits, family conditions, microsystem transactions, and neighborhood influences. K-means clustering techniques revealed four cluster profiles characterized by unique patterns of risk and protection. Results suggest that important differences exist in patterns of risk and protection among young people who live in poverty and that these differences are evident in educational and behavioral outcomes. Findings also point to characteristics that appear to sustain resilient development in the presence of multilayered risk.
- Educational and behavioral outcomes
- Risk and resilience
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Sociology and Political Science