Automated morphological classification in deep Hubble Space Telescope UBVI fields: Rapidly and passively evolving faint galaxy populations

Stephen C. Odewahn, Rogier Windhorst, Simon P. Driver, William C. Keel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

86 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We analyze deep Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) images in U, B, V, I using artificial neural network (ANN) classifiers, which are based on galaxy surface brightness and light profile (but not on color nor on scale length, rhl). The ANN distinguishes quite well between E/S0, Sabc, and Sd/Irr+M galaxies (M for merging systems) for BJ ≲ 27 mag. We discuss effects from the cosmological surface brightness (SB) dimming and from the redshifted UV morphology on the classifications, and we correct for the latter. We present classifications in UBVI from (a) four independent human classifiers; (b) ANNs trained on V606 and I814 images; and (c) an ANN trained on images in the rest-frame UBV according to the expected redshift distribution as a function of BJ. For each of the three methods, we find that the fraction of galaxy types does not depend significantly on wavelength, and that they produce consistent counts as a function of type. The median scale length at BJ ≃ 27 mag is rhl = 0″.25-0″.3 (1-2 kpc at z ≈ 1-2). Early- and late-type galaxies are fairly well separated in BVI color-magnitude diagrams for B ≲ 27 mag, with E/S0 galaxies being the reddest and Sd/Irr+M galaxies generally blue. We present the B-band galaxy counts for five WFPC2 fields as a function of morphological type for BJ ≲ 27 mag. E/S0 galaxies are only marginally above the no-evolution predictions, and Sabc galaxies are at most 0.5 dex above the nonevolving models for BJ ≳ 24 mag. The faint blue galaxy counts in the B band are dominated by Sd/Irr+M galaxies and can be explained by a moderately steep local luminosity function (LF) undergoing strong luminosity evolution. We suggest that these faint late-type objects (24 mag ≲ BJ ≲ 28 mag) are a combination of low-luminosity lower redshift dwarf galaxies, plus compact star-forming galaxies and merging systems at z ≃ 1-3, possibly the building blocks of the luminous early-type galaxies seen today.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume472
Issue number1 PART II
StatePublished - 1996

Fingerprint

Hubble Space Telescope
artificial neural network
galaxies
diagram
wavelength
luminosity
prediction
classifiers
brightness
cameras
dimming
color-magnitude diagram
dwarf galaxies
color
stars

Keywords

  • Galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD
  • Galaxies: evolution
  • Galaxies: formation
  • Galaxies: irregular
  • Galaxies: spiral

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Automated morphological classification in deep Hubble Space Telescope UBVI fields : Rapidly and passively evolving faint galaxy populations. / Odewahn, Stephen C.; Windhorst, Rogier; Driver, Simon P.; Keel, William C.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 472, No. 1 PART II, 1996.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Driver, Simon P.

AU - Keel, William C.

PY - 1996

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N2 - We analyze deep Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) images in U, B, V, I using artificial neural network (ANN) classifiers, which are based on galaxy surface brightness and light profile (but not on color nor on scale length, rhl). The ANN distinguishes quite well between E/S0, Sabc, and Sd/Irr+M galaxies (M for merging systems) for BJ ≲ 27 mag. We discuss effects from the cosmological surface brightness (SB) dimming and from the redshifted UV morphology on the classifications, and we correct for the latter. We present classifications in UBVI from (a) four independent human classifiers; (b) ANNs trained on V606 and I814 images; and (c) an ANN trained on images in the rest-frame UBV according to the expected redshift distribution as a function of BJ. For each of the three methods, we find that the fraction of galaxy types does not depend significantly on wavelength, and that they produce consistent counts as a function of type. The median scale length at BJ ≃ 27 mag is rhl = 0″.25-0″.3 (1-2 kpc at z ≈ 1-2). Early- and late-type galaxies are fairly well separated in BVI color-magnitude diagrams for B ≲ 27 mag, with E/S0 galaxies being the reddest and Sd/Irr+M galaxies generally blue. We present the B-band galaxy counts for five WFPC2 fields as a function of morphological type for BJ ≲ 27 mag. E/S0 galaxies are only marginally above the no-evolution predictions, and Sabc galaxies are at most 0.5 dex above the nonevolving models for BJ ≳ 24 mag. The faint blue galaxy counts in the B band are dominated by Sd/Irr+M galaxies and can be explained by a moderately steep local luminosity function (LF) undergoing strong luminosity evolution. We suggest that these faint late-type objects (24 mag ≲ BJ ≲ 28 mag) are a combination of low-luminosity lower redshift dwarf galaxies, plus compact star-forming galaxies and merging systems at z ≃ 1-3, possibly the building blocks of the luminous early-type galaxies seen today.

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KW - Galaxies: evolution

KW - Galaxies: formation

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KW - Galaxies: spiral

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